Janapada Sahitya Essay Writing

  • This detailed map shows the locations of kingdoms and "republics" mentioned in the Indian epics or Bharata Khanda.

The Janapadas (pronounced [dʒənəpəd̪ə]) were the realms, republics (GanaPada) and kingdoms (SaamaRajya) of the Vedic period on the Indian subcontinent — late Bronze Age into the Iron Age — from about 1500 BCE to the 6th century BCE. Concluding with the rise of sixteen Mahajanapadas ("great janapadas"), most of the states were later annexed by more powerful neighbours, whilst others remained independent.

Etymology[edit]

The Sanskrit term janapada is a tatpurusha compound term, composed of two words: janas and pada. Jana means "people" or "subject" (cf. Latincognategenus, English cognate kin). The word pada means "foot" (cf. Latin cognate pedis);[1][2] from its earliest attestation, the word has had a double meaning of "realm, territory" and "subject population". Linguist George Dunkel compares the Greekandrapodon "slave", to PIE*pédom "fetters" (i.e. "what is attached to the feet"). Sanskrit padám, usually taken to mean "footprint, trail", diverges in accent from the PIE reconstruction. For the sense of "population of the land", padasya janas, the inverted padajana would be expected. A primary meaning of "place of the people", janasya padam, would not explain why the compound is of masculine gender. An original dvandva "land and people" is conceivable, but a dual inflection would be expected.[3]

Evolution[edit]

Literary evidence suggests that the janapadas flourished between 1500 BCE and 500 BCE. The earliest mention of the term "janapada" occurs in the Aitareya (8.14.4) and Shatapatha (13.4.2.17) Brahmana texts.

In the Vedicsamhitas, the term jana denotes a tribe, whose members believed in a shared ancestry. The janas were headed by a king. The samiti was a common assembly of the jana members, and had the power to elect or dethrone the king. The sabha was a smaller assembly of wise elders, who advised the king.

The janas were originally semi-nomadic pastoral communities, but gradually came to be associated with specific territories as they became less mobile. Various kulas (clans) developed within the jana, each with its own chief. Gradually, the necessities of defence and warfare prompted the janas to form military groupings headed by janapadins (Kshatriya warriors). This model ultimately evolved into the establishment of political units known as the janapadas.

While some of the janas evolved into their own janapadas, others appear to have mixed together to form a common Janapada. According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five (pancha) janas. Some janas (such as Aja and Mutiba) mentioned in the earliest texts do not find a mention in the later texts. Misra theorizes that these smaller janas were conquered by and assimilated into the larger janas.

Janapadas were gradually dissolved around 500 BCE. Their disestablishment can be attributed to the rise of imperial powers (such as Magadha) within India, as well as foreign invasions (such as those by the Persians and the Greeks) in the north-western South Asia.

Nature[edit]

The Janapada were highest political unit in Ancient India during this period; these polities were usually monarchical (though some followed a form republicanism) and succession was hereditary. The head of a kingdom was called a (rajan) or king. A chief (purohita) or priest and a (senani) or commander of the army who would assist the king. There were also two other political bodies: the (sabha), thought to be a council of elders and the (samiti), a general assembly of the entire people.[11]

The boundaries of the kingdoms[edit]

Often rivers formed the boundaries of two neighboring kingdoms, as was the case between the northern and southern Panchala and between the western (Pandava's Kingdom) and eastern (Kaurava's Kingdom) Kuru. Sometimes, large forests, which were larger than the kingdoms themselves, formed their boundaries as was the case of Naimisha Forest, the NaimishaAranyam between Panchala and Kosala kingdoms. Mountain ranges like Himalaya, VindhyaAchala and SahyaAdri also formed their boundaries.

The cities and villages[edit]

Some kingdoms possessed a main city that served as its capital. For example, the capital of Pandava's Kingdom was Indraprastha and the Kaurava's Kingdom was Hastinapura. Ahichatra was the capital of Northern Panchala whereas Kampilya was the capital of Southern Panchala. Kosala Kingdom had its capital at Ayodhya. Apart from the main city or capital, where the palace of the ruling king was situated, there were small towns and villages spread throughout the kingdom, from which tax was collected by officers appointed by the king. What the king offered in return was protection from attack by other kings and robber tribes, as well as from invading foreign nomadic tribes. The king also enforced law and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty.[12][13]

Administration[edit]

The Janapadas had Kshatriya rulers. Based on literary references, historians have theorized that the Janapadas were administered by the following assemblies in addition to the king:

Sabha (Council)
An assembly more akin to a council of qualified members or elders (mostly men) who advised the king and performed judicial functions. In the ganas or republican Janapadas called Gana-Rajya with no kings, the council of elders also handled administration.
Paura Sabha (Executive Council)
Paura was the assembly of the capital city (pura), and handled municipal administration.
Samiti (General Assembly)
A samiti generally consisted of all adults of the republic or the city-state. A samiti was congregated when a matter of importance had to be communicated to the entire city-state. A samiti was also held at the time of festivals to plan, raise revenue and conduct the celebrations.
Janapada
The Janapada assembly represented the rest of the Janapada, possibly the villages, which were administered by a Gramini.

Some historians have also theorized that there was a common assembly called the "Paura-Janapada", but others such as Ram Sharan Sharma disagree with this theory. The existence of Paura and Janapada itself is a controversial matter.

Indian nationalist historians such as K. P. Jayaswal have argued that the existence of such assemblies is evidence of prevalence of democracy in ancient India.[19] V. B. Misra notes that the contemporary society was divided into the four varnas (besides the outcastes), and the Kshatriya ruling class had all the political rights. Not all the citizens in a janapada had political rights. Based on Gautama's Dharmasutra, Jayaswal theorized that the low-caste shudras could be members of the Paura assembly. According to A. S. Altekar, this theory is based on a misunderstanding of the text: the term "Paura" in the relevant portion of the Dharmasutra refers to a resident of the city, not a member of the city assembly.[21] Jayaswal also argued that the members of the supposed Paura-Janapada assembly acted as counselors to the king, and made other important decisions such as imposing taxes in times of emergency. Once again, Altekar argued that these conclusions are based on misinterpretations of the literary evidence. For example, Jayaswal has wrongly translated the word "amantra" in a Ramayana verse as "to offer advice"; it actually means "to bid farewell" in proper context.[21]

Interactions between kingdoms[edit]

Ancient Indian Antennae sword; Metalwork, 1500–500 BCE.

Ancient Indian Ax Blade, 1500–1000 BCE.

There was no border security for a kingdom and border disputes were very rare. One king might conduct a military campaign (often designated as Digvijaya meaning victory over all the directions) and defeat another king in a battle, lasting for a day.[22] The defeated king would acknowledge the supremacy of the victorious king. The defeated king might sometimes be asked to give a tribute to the victorious king. Such tribute would be collected only once, not on a periodic basis. The defeated king, in most cases, would be free to rule his own kingdom, without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. There was no annexation of one kingdom by another. Often a military general conducted these campaigns on behalf of his king. A military campaign and tribute collection was often associated with a great sacrifice (like Rajasuya or Ashvamedha) conducted in the kingdom of the campaigning king. The defeated king also was invited to attend these sacrifice ceremonies, as a friend and ally.

New kingdoms[edit]

New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produced more than one King in a generation. The Kuru clan of Kings was very successful in governing throughout North India with their numerous kingdoms, which were formed after each successive generation. Similarly, the Yadava clan of kings formed numerous kingdoms in Central India.[24]

Cultural differences[edit]

Parts of western India were dominated by tribes who had a slightly different culture, considered non-Vedic by the mainstream Vedic culture prevailing in the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms. Similarly, there were some tribes in the eastern regions of India considered to be in this category.[25] Tribes with non-Vedic culture — especially those of barbaric nature — were collectively termed as Mleccha. Very little was mentioned in the ancient Indian literature about the kingdoms to the North, beyond the Himalayas. China was mentioned as a kingdom known as Cina, often grouped with Mleccha kingdoms.

List of Janapadas[edit]

Vedic literature[edit]

The Vedas mention five sub-divisions of ancient India:

  • Udichya (Northern region)
  • Prachya (Eastern region)
  • Dakshina (Southern region)
  • Pratichya (Western region)
  • Madhya-desha (Central region)

The Vedic literature mentions the following janas or janapadas:

Jana or JanapadaIAST nameRegionMentioned in
Rigveda
Mentioned in
Atharvaveda
AjaAjaCentral
AlinaAlinaWestern
AmbashthaAmbaśṭhaCentral
AndhraĀndhraSouthern
AngaAṅgaEastern
AnuAnuWestern
BalhikaBalhikaNorthern
BhalanaBhalanaWestern
BharadvajaBharadvājaCentral
BharataBharataCentral
BhedaBhedaCentral
BodhaBodhaCentral
ChediCediCentral
DruhyuDruhyuWestern
GandhariGandhāriWestern
KambojaKambojaNorthern
KeshinKeśinCentral
KikataKīkaṭaEastern
KirataKirātaEastern
KosalaKosalaEastern
KriviKriviCentral
KuntiKuntiCentral
KuruKuruCentral
MagadhaMagadhaEastern
MahavrishaMahāvṛṣaNorthern
MatsyaMatsyaCentral
MujavanaMūjavanaNorthern
MutibaMūtibaSouthern
NishadaNiṣādaCentral
PakthaPakthaWestern
PanchalaPāñcalaCentral
ParshuParśuWestern
ParavataPārāvataCentral
PrithuPṛthuWestern
PulindaPulindaSouthern
PundraPuṇḍraEastern
PuruPūruWestern
RushamaRuśamaCentral
ShalvaŚālvaCentral
SatvantaSatvantaSouthern
ShabaraŚabaraSouthern
ShigruŚigruCentral
ShivaŚivaWestern
ShviknaŚviknaCentral
SrinjayaSṛñjayaCentral
TritsuTṛtsuCentral
TurvashaTurvaśaWestern
UshinaraUśīnaraCentral
Uttara KuruUttara KuruNorthern
Uttara MadraUttara MadraNorthern
VaikarnaVaikarṇaNorthern
VangaVaṅgaEastern
KashiKāśiEastern
VarashikhaVaraśikhaCentral
VashaVaśaCentral
VidarbhaVidarbhaSouthern
VidehaVidehaEastern
VishaninViśaṇinWestern
VrichivantaVṛcivantaWestern
YaduYaduWestern
YakshuYakṣuCentral

See also: List of Rigvedic tribes

Puranic literature[edit]

The Puranas mention seven sub-divisions of ancient India:

According to research by political scientist Sudama Misra, the Puranic texts mention the following janapadas:

JanapadaRegionMentioned in the Puranas?Alternative names and locations
Matsya
(Chapter 114)
Vayu
(Chapter 45)
Markandeya
(Chapter 57)
Vamana
(Chapter 13)
Brahmanda
(Chapter 16)
Ābhīra (northern)Northern
Ābhīra (southern)Southern
Abhīṣaha (Abhishaha)NorthernApanga (Vayu), Aupadha (Markandeya), Alasa (Vamana)
ĀhukaNorthernKuhaka (Markandeya), Kuhuka (Vamana)
AlimadraNorthernAnibhadra (Markandeya), Alibhadra (Vamana)
ĀnartaWesternĀvantya Markandeya, Vamana
AndhakaCentral
ĀndhraSouthernAndha (Markandeya)
AndhravākaEasternAndhāraka (Markandeya)
AṅgaEasternCentral and Eastern in Vamana
Aṅgāramāriṣa (Angara-Marisha)Southern
ĀntaranarmadaWesternUttaranarmada (Markandeya), Sunarmada (Vamana)
AntargiriEastern
AnūpaVindhyanArūpa (Matsya), Annaja (Vayu)
AparāntaNorthernPurandhra (Matsya), Aparīta (Vayu)
ArthapaCentralAtharva (Markandeya)
Aśmaka (Ashmaka)Southern
AśvakūṭaCentral
ĀṭaviSouthernĀraṇya (Markandeya), Āṭavya (Brahmanda)
ĀtreyaNorthernAtri (Matsya, Brahmanda)
AuṇḍraVindhyan
AvantiVindhyanCentral and Vindhyan in Matsya
BahirgiriEastern
VāhlīkaNorthern
BahulaNorthernPahlava (Vayu), Bahudha (Vamana)
BarbaraNorthernCentral and Northern in Vamana
BhadraEastern and Central
BhadrakāraCentral
BharadvājaNorthern
BhārgavaEastern
BharukacchaWesternBhanukaccha (Vayu), Bhīrukahcha (Markandeya), Dārukachchha (Vamana), Sahakaccha (Brahmanda)
BhogavardhanaSouthern
BhojaVindhyanGopta (Vamana)
Bhūṣika (Bhushika)Northern
BodhaCentralBāhya (Matsya)
BrahmottaraEasternSuhmottara (Matsya), Samantara (Brahmanda)
Carmakhaṇḍika (Charmakhandika)NorthernAttakhaṇḍika (Matsya), Sakheṭaka (Vamana)
KeralaSouthernKevala (Markandeya)
Cīna (China)NorthernPīna (Vayu), Veṇa (Vamana)
Cola (Chola)SouthernCaulya (Vayu), Cauḍa (Vamana); Southern and Eastern in Brahmanda
Cūlika (Chulika)NorthernCūḍika (Vamana), Vindhyacūlika (Brahmanda)
DaṇḍakaSouthern
DaradaNorthern
DarvaHimalayanHimalayan and Northern in Vayu and Markandeya
Daśeraka (Dasheraka)NorthernKarseruka (Vayu), Kuśeruka (Markandeya)
Daśamālika (Dashamalika)NorthernDaśanāmaka (Matsya), Daśamānika (Vayu), Daṅśana (Vamana)
Daśarṇa (Dasharna)Vindhyan
DruhyuNorthernHrada (Vayu), Bhadra (Brahmanda)
DurgaWesternDurgala (Brahmanda)
GanakaNorthern
GāndhāraNorthern
GodhaCentral
GolāṅgūlaSouthern
GonardaEasternGovinda (Vayu), Gomanta (Markandeya), Mananda (Vamana)
HaṃsamārgaHimalayanSarvaga (Himalayan) in Matsya; Haṃsamārga (Northern and Himalayan) in Vayu and Markandeya; Karnamārga (Northern) and Haṃsamārga (Himalayan) in Vamana; Haṃsamārga (Himalayan) Haṃsabhaṅga (Northern) in Brahmanda
Hara-HunakaNorthernPūrṇa (Vayu), Ūrṇa (Markandeya), Cūrṇa (Vamana), Hūṇa (Brahmanda)
Hāramuṣika (Haramushika)NorthernHāramūrtika (Matsya), Hārapūrika (Vayu), Sāmuṣaka (Vamana)
HuhukaHimalayanSamudgaka (Matsya), Sahūdaka (Vayu), Sakṛtraka (Markandeya), Śahuhūka (Vamana), Sahuhūka (Brahmanda)
IjikaNorthern
Īṣīka (Ishika)SouthernVaisakya (Markandeya)
JagudaNorthernJāṇgala (Matsya), Juhuḍa (Vayu), Jāguḍa (Markandeya)
JāṇgalaCentral
JñeyamarthakaEasternJñeyamallaka (Markandeya), Aṅgiyamarṣaka (Vamana), Gopapārthiva (Brahmanda)
KachchhikaWesternKāchchhīka (Matsya), Kacchīya (Vayu), Kāśmīra (Markandeya), Kacchipa (Brahmanda)
KālatoyakaNorthern
Kaliṅga (central)CentralArkalinga (Markandeya)
Kaliṅga (southern)Southern
KalitakaWesternKālītaka (Vayu), Anīkaṭa (Markandeya), Tālīkaṭa (Vamana), Kuntala (Brahmanda)
KalivanaWesternKolavana (Vayu), Kālivala (Markandeya), Vāridhana (Vamana), Kalivana (Brahmanda)
KāmbojaNorthern
KantakaraNorthernKanṭakāra (Matsya), Raddhakaṭaka (Vayu), Bahubhadra (Markandeya), Kādhara (Vamana)
KāraskaraWesternParaṣkara (Vayu), Kaṭhākṣara (Markandeya), Karandhara (Brahmanda)
Kārūṣa (Karusha)VindhyanSouthern and Vindhyan (Matsya)
Kāśmīra (Kashmira)Northern
KauśikaCentral
KekeyaNorthernKaikeyya (Matsya), Kaikeya (Markandeya), Kaikeya (Vamana)
KhasaHimalayanKhaśa (Vamana), Śaka (Brahmanda)
KirātaHimalayanKirāta (Matsya, Central and Himalayan)
KisaṇṇaCentral
Kiṣkindhaka (Kishkindhaka)VindhyanKikarava (Vamana)
KoṅkaṇaSouthern
Kośala (Central)Central
Kośala (Vindhyan)Vindhyan
KukkuṭaNorthern
KulūtaNorthernUlūta (Brahmanda)
KulyaSouthern and CentralOnly Central in Markandeya; only Southern in Vamana and Brahmanda
KumaraSouthernKupatha (Matsya), Kumana (Vayu), Kusuma (Markandeya), Kumārāda (Vamana), Kṣapaṇa (Brahmanda)
KunindaNorthernPulinda (Matsya), Kaliṅga (Markandeya), Kalinda (Brahmanda)
KuntalaSouthern and CentralKuntala ( (Matsya, only Central), Kuṇḍala (Vamana)
KupathaHimalayanKṣupaṇa (Vayu), Kurava (Markandeya)
KuruCentralKaurava (Vamana)
Kuśalya (Kushalya)Central
Kuśūdra (Kushudra)Central
KuthaprāvaraṇaHimalayanKuśaprāvaraṇa (Vayu), Kuntaprāvaraṇa (Markandeya), Apaprāvaraṇa (Brahmanda)
LalhittaNorthern
LampākaNorthernLamaka (Brahmanda)
MadrakaNorthernBhadraka (Vayu and Vamana), Maṇḍala (Brahmanda)
MadgurakaEasternMudgara (Markandeya), Mudagaraka (Brahmanda)
MādreyaCentral
MagadhaEasternCentral and Eastern in Vayu and Brahmanda
Maharāṣṭra (Maharashtra)SouthernNavarāṣṭra (Matsya)
MāheyaWestern
Māhiṣika (Mahishika)SouthernMāhiṣaka (Vayu and Markandeya)
MāladaEasternMālava (Matsya), Manada (Markandeya), Mansāda (Vamana)
MalakaCentral
MalavartikaEasternMallavarṇaka (Matsya), Mālavartin (Vayu), Mānavartika (Markandeya), Baladantika (Vamana)
MālavaVindhyanEkalavya (Vamana), Malada (Brahmanda)
MallaEasternŚālva (Matsya), Māla (Vayu), Māia (Vamana)
MaṇḍalaHimalayanMālava (Vayu), Mālava (Markandeya)
MāṇḍavyaNorthern
Māṣa (Masha)Vindhyan
MātaṅgaEastern
MatsyaCentralYatstha (Vamana)
MaulikaSouthernMaunika (Vayu)
MekalaVindhyanRokala (Vayu), Kevala (Markandeya)
ArbudaWestern
MūkaCentral
Mūṣika (Mushika)SouthernSūtika (Matsya), Mūṣikāda (Vamana), Mūṣika (Brahmanda)
NairṇikaSouthernNaiṣika (Markandeya)
NalakālikaSouthernVanadāraka (Markandeya), Nalakāraka (Vamana)
NāsikyaWesternVāsikya (Matsya), Nāsikānta (Vamana), Nāsika (Brahmanda)
NirāhāraHimalayanNigarhara (Vayu), Nihāra (Markandeya)
Naiṣadha (Naishadha)VindhyanNiṣāda (Vayu)
PahlavaNorthernPallava (all except Vayu)
PāṇavīyaNorthern
Pāñcala (Panchala)Central
Pāṇḍya (Pandya)SouthernPuṇḍra (Markandeya), Puṇḍra (Vamana)
PāradaNorthernParita (Vayu), Pāravata (Vamana)
Paṭaccara (Patachchara)CentralŚatapatheśvara (Vayu)
PaurikaSouthernPaunika (Vayu), Paurika (Markandeya), Paurika (Vamana), Paurika (Brahmanda)
Pluṣṭa (Plushta)Himalayan
Prāgjyotiṣa (Pragjyotisha)Eastern
PrasthalaNorthernPuṣkala (Markandeya)
PravaṅgaEasternPlavaṅga (Matsya and Brahmanda)
PrāvijayaEasternPrāviṣeya (Brahmanda)
PriyalaukikaNorthernHarṣavardhana (Markandeya), Aṅgalaukika (Vamana), Aṅgalaukika (Brahmanda)
PuleyaWesternKulīya (Matsya), Pulinda (Markandeya), Pulīya (Vamana), Pauleya (Brahmanda)
PulindaSouthern
PuṇḍraEasternMuṇḍa (Vayu), Madra (Markandeya), Pṛsadhra (Vamana)
Rākṣasa (Rakshasa)Southern
RāmaṭhaNorthernMāṭhara (Markandeya), Māṭharodha (Vamana)
RūpasaWesternKūpasa (Vayu), Rūpapa (Markandeya), Rūpaka (Brahmanda)
SainikaNorthernPidika (Vayu), Śūlika (Markandeya), Jhillika (Brahmanda)
Śālva (Shalva)Central
SarajaVindhyan
SārasvataWestern
SārikaSouthern
Surāṣṭra (Surashtra)WesternSaurāṣṭra (Matsya)
Sauśalya (Saushalya)Central
SauvīraNorthern
SetukaSouthernŚailūṣa (Markandeya), Jānuka (Vamana)
Śabara (Shabara)SouthernBara (Vayu), Śarava (Brahmanda)
Śaka (Shaka)NorthernCentral in Vamana
Śaśikhādrika (Shashikhadraka)Himalayan
Śatadruja (Shatadruja)NorthernŚatadrava (Vamana)
ṢaṭpuraVindhyanPadgama (Matsya), Ṣaṭsura (Vayu), Paṭava (Markandeya), Bahela (Vamana)
Śulakara (Shulakara)Northern
ŚūrpārakaWesternSūrpāraka (Vayu), Sūryāraka (Markandeya), Sūryāraka (Brahmanda)
SindhuNorthern
SirālaWesternSurāla (Vayu), Sumīna (Markandeya), Sinīla (Vamana), Kirāta (Brahmanda)
Śudra (Shudra)NorthernSuhya (Brahmanda)
SujarakaEastern
Supārśva (Suparshva)Northern
Śūrasena (Shurasena)Central
TaittrikaWesternTaittirika (Matsya), Turasita (Vayu), Kurumini (Markandeya), Tubhamina (Vamana), Karīti (Brahmanda)
TalaganaNorthernTalagāna (Matsya), Stanapa (Vayu), Tāvakarāma (Vamana), Tālaśāla (Brahmanda)
TāmasaHimalayanChamara (Matsya), Tomara (Vamana), Tāmara (Brahmanda)
TāmasWestern
TāmralipatakaEastern
TaṅgaṇaHimalayanApatha (Matsya), Gurguṇa (Markandeya)
TaṅgaṇaNorthernTuṅgana (Markandeya)
TāpasaWesternSvāpada (Markandeya), Tāpaka (Brahmanda)
TilaṇgaCentral
TomaraNorthernTāmasa (Markandeya and Vamana)
Tośala (Toshala)Vindhyan
TraipuraVindhyan
TrigartaHimalayan
TumbaraVindhyanTumbura (Vayu), Tumbula (Markandeya), Barbara (Brahmanda)
TumuraVindhyanTumbura (Markandeya), Turaga (Vamana), Tuhuṇḍa (Brahmanda)
TuṇḍikeraVindhyanŚauṇḍikera (Matsya), Tuṣṭikāra (Markandeya)
TūrṇapādaNorthern
Tuṣāra (Tushara)NorthernTukhāra (Markandeya)
UdbhidaSouthernUlida (Vamana), Kulinda (Brahmanda)
UrṇaHimalayanHuṇa (Vayu)
UtkalaVindhyanEastern and Central in Brahmanda
UttamārṇaVindhyanUttama (Brahmanda)
VāhyatodaraNorthernGirigahvara (Brahmanda)
VanavāsikaSouthernVājivasika (Matsya), Banavāsika (Vayu), Namavāsika (Markandeya), Mahāśaka (Vamana)
VaṅgaEasternCentral and Eastern in Vamana
VāṅgeyaEasternMārgavageya (Matsya), Rāṅgeya (Markandeya), Vojñeya (Brahmanda)
Kāśi (Kashi)Central
VāṭadhānaNorthern
VatsaCentral
VātsīyaWestern
VaidarbhaSouthern
VidehaEastern
Vaidiśa (Vaidisha)VindhyanVaidika (Vayu), Kholliśa (Vamana)
VindhyamūlikaSouthernVindhyapuṣika (Matsya), Vindhyaśaileya (Markandeya), Vindhyamaulīya (Brahmanda)
VītihotraVindhyanVīrahotra (Markandeya), Vītahotra (Vamana)
VṛkaCentral
YamakaEastern
YavanaNorthernGavala (Markandeya)

Sanskrit epics[edit]

The Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata mentions around 230 janapadas, while the Ramayana mentions only a few of these. Unlike the Puranas, the Mahabharata does not specify any geographical divisions of ancient India, but does support the classification of certain janapadas as southern or northern.

See also: Category:Kingdoms in the Mahabharata

Buddhist canon[edit]

The Buddhist canonical texts primarily refer to the following 16 mahajanapadas ("great janapadas"):

The Jain text Bhagavati Sutra also mentions 16 important janapadas, but their names differ from the ones mentioned in the Buddhist texts.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Charles Rockwell Lanman (1912), A Sanskrit reader: with vocabulary and notes, Boston: Ginn & Co.,  
  2. ^Stephen Potter, Laurens Christopher Sargent (1974), Pedigree: the origins of words from nature, Taplinger,  
  3. ^Dunkel, George (2002), "Indo-European Perspectives (ed. M. R. V. Southern)", Journal of Indo-European Studies (Monograph) (43) 
  4. ^D. R. Bhandarkar (1994). Lectures on the Ancient History of India from 650 - 325 B. C. Asian Educational Services. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-81-206-0124-6. 
  5. ^Devendrakumar Rajaram Patil (1946). Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-81-208-2085-2. 
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Bibliography[edit]

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Kannada Rajyothsava Day was warmly celebrated at the Center for Post Graduate Studies, Jain University

12 November 2016

The Diamond Jubilee of the Kannada Rajyothsava was celebrated with a lot of enthusiasm and excitement at CPGS on 5th Nov., 2016. The Day's events started with the Flag hoisting followed by the singing of "Nada Geethe". A very well-known kannada writer, lyricist and folk artist Mr. Lakshmipathy Kolara graced the occasion as the chief guest.

Mr. Lakshmipathy Kolara is well known for his screenplay and dialogues for movies Beru (2005), Mukhamukhi (2006), and Dhaatu (2007). He is also a famous folk-artist, who has won a number of awards, including, Karnataka State Film Award- 2004-05- Beru, 2005-06- Mukhamukhi, Sahitya Academy Book Prize-2001, Perla Krishna Bhatta Poetry award-2000, ‘Naada chetana’ award-2006, Joladarashi Doddanagowda Grantha Prashasthi for Allamana Bayalaata Play-2009, Veechi Sahithya purskara for Allamana Bayalaata Play-2010, Samsa Ranga Puraskara - 2010, e-kavi sahitya prashasthi – 2010, Sahithya Academy Book Prize for Allamana Bayalaata Play-2010, Karnataka State Best Script Writer Film Award-2010-11 : Bhagavathi Kadu. Mr. Lakshmipathy also has to his credit over two decades of research in the field of Linguistics that will soon be published in the form of books. He shared a lot of facts from his vast knowledge about the various languages including Kannada, history of Karnataka and also the Kannada literature.

The Director of CPGS, Dr. Varalakshmi also spoke on the occasion, highlighting the various aspects that are unique to Karnataka.

In connection with these celebrations, a number of competitions were held, that included the Rangoli competition, Kannada Quiz and Kannada Essay writing competitions. The topic of the Essay was "Janapada Sahitya". Winners of these events were given the Prizes on the day of the celebrations.

The event concluded the celebrations with sumptuous meal of Karnataka’s special dish Bisibelebath.

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