Training Essay

ABSTRACT
Training is a systematic activity that enhances the skills of the employees. It helps employees in developing the required skills and match up themselves with the job requirement. Training is an investment of money, time and energy done for employee’s productivity and progression. Therefore it is necessary to know the impact of training and development on employees and their behavior.
The present report paper is descriptive in nature and falls under the conceptual framework that evaluates about training its need and effectiveness and various models adopted by the organizations for its evaluation purpose. These report paper suggests the most widely used models for evaluation and issues which leads to ignorance and course of evaluation.
Keywords: Training, Types of training, Training evaluation and Training effectiveness models.

Objectives of the study
The objectives of these study are:
‘ To study about training , its need and importance of its evaluation, and to keep a check on its effectiveness procedure as to enhance skills of employees and measure the returns on investment.

‘ To study the various models of employee training effectiveness and to analyze it so as it can be helpful to various HR departments.

‘ To create a comparative analysis of various type of models used.

‘ To find out the short comings in the total training program

‘ To study the change in the knowledge implementation and ideas in work and the behavior of employees after training program

Research methodology
As per the requirement of the report study , I basically analyzed the questionnaire given to employees to know their perception regarding the training program and also collected information on websites regarding the various methods of training evaluation , the process of evaluation ,etc and also referred to books to get the idea of the concepts. The practical approach was by
‘ Understanding the training effectiveness systems
‘ Studying the kind of training effectiveness evaluation system in L&T-S&L
‘ The time period required for the Review to be completed.
This study is both quantitative and qualitative in nature and uses secondary as well as primary sources like books ,journals ,internet web pages to create different training models. It helps in analysis and study of various models

LITERATURE REVIEW
Ramachandran (2010) has made an analytical study on effectiveness of training program of different cadre of employees working in a public sector organization. The result reveals that employees differed in effectiveness of training programme on the basis of demographic characters. It is also inferred that experience and education of the employees of the organization is predominating and determining factor in training program.

Nagar (2009) has viewed that training budgets are growing at a phenomenal pace as organization use training to build required skills, indoctrinate new employees, transform banking culture, merge new acquisitions into the organization and build multiple skills for radically changing jobs. Scholar has made an attempt to study the effectiveness of training programmes being conducted by the commercial banks in public as well as in the private sector based on the responses of their clerical level staff. The results of the study reveal that training programmes of the respondent organizations are generally effective with respect to course duration, library facilities, trainer, teaching and computer aided programme and infrastructure facilities.
Saharan (2011) highlighted that most organization are taking feedback from employees for training effectiveness to maximize its benefits. In the ceaseless drive for a competitive edge, companies subscribe to the belief that smarter, better trained workers increase chances for success. The study expounds the perspective of employees having different qualification and experiences towards objectives behind imparting training in organizations.
Smith (1990) viewed that evaluation of management training courses is a subject much discussed but,superficially carried out. The study finds that there is too great an emphasis on providing an objective evaluation report and too little recognition of subjective and peculiar issues which do not necessarily fit the frame.
Hashim (2001) has made an intensive study that training evaluation is an elusive concept, especially when it comes to practice. The practice of evaluation in training has received a lot of criticism. This criticism is largely explained by the unsystematic, informal and adhoc evaluation that has been conducted by training institution.
Griffin (2010) finds that there is a mismatch between organizations desires to evaluate training and the extent and effectiveness of actual evaluation. There are a numbers of reasons for this including the inadequacy of current methods.
Al-Ajlouni, Athammuh & Jaradat (2010) viewed that the evaluation of an y training programme has certain aims to fulfil. These are concerned with the determination of change in the organizational behaviour and the changes needed in the organizational structure. Scholars asserts that evaluation of any training programme must inform whether the training programme has been able to deliver the goals and objectives in terms of cost incurred and benefit achieved, the analysis of the information is the concluding part of any evaluation programme. They also stressed that the analysis of data should be summarized and then compared with the data of other training programmes similar nature. On the basis of these comparisons, problems and strength should be identified which would help the trainer in his future training programme.
Ogundejl (1991) viewed that evaluation is increasingly being regarded as a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of training. Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted. In order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be integrated with organizational life.
Hunt & Baruch (2003) highlighted that some organizations invest a great deal of time and effort in elaborate training programmes designed to improve the so-called soft skills of managing. Yet assessing the effectiveness of such initiatives has been rare. Recent developments in the use of survey feedback have provided a technique for pre and post training assessment. A study, at a leading business school, was designed to assess the impact of interpersonal skills training on top managers. The evaluation of training was based on subordinate feedback conducted before, and six months after training programme took place. The result indicates significant impact on some but not all of the competencies and skill under study.

Iyer, Pardiwalla & Bathia (2009) briefly explore the various methods of training evaluation to understand the need for training evaluation with emphasis on the Kirkpatrick’s model. Scholars concluded that although there are different methods to evaluate training, still training evaluation is the weakest and most under
developed aspect of training. Although evaluation is still a grey area, every organization has to move to evaluate return on investment and behaviour to evaluate its training programme in order to justify the investment made in training as well as to improve the training process.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
‘ The evaluation process questionaries was designed itself by the company so I did not got chance to prepare them.

‘ No training programs were conducted during the time of my internship training , the analysis is been done on the pre collected data of employees feedback.

‘ The main limitation as full and complete information could not be gathered.As it was not permitted to have a talk with each single employee.

COMPANY PROFILE
L&T-Sargent & Lundy Limited (L&T-S&L),
Eastablished in 1995, is a premier Engineering & Consultancy firm in the Power Sector, born out of shared vision of two renowned organizations – Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T), India’s largest Engineering & Construction Company and Sargent & Lundy LLC – USA, a global Consulting firm in Power industry since 1891.

L&T-S&L’s main Design Centre is located in L&T-Knowledge City, a world class complex in Vadodara. L&T-S&L has also set up full-fledged Design & Engineering center at Faridabad to expand its horizons and effectively reach out to customers. L&T-S&L has a present strength of around 640 experienced professionals and has been associated with over 150 power projects in India and abroad.

L&T-S&L encompass the complete gamut of Power Plant Engineering & Consultancy services – from concept to commissioning. Its experience list includes overseas projects in USA, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Jordan, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Central America, North Africa, Kenya and many others. Besides having considerable expertise in Gas based and sub-critical Coal based power projects, L&T-S&L is pioneering the engineering for Supercritical Coal based projects and forms the engineering base for L&T’s thrust into turnkey Supercritical technology. It has engineered over 14,000 MW of generation capacity of Gas-turbine based power plants and 19,000 MW of generation capacity of Coal-based power plants. L&T-S&L is also expanding its horizons in the Renewable (Solar/Wind/Biomass) Energy.

A unique feature of L&T-S&L’s engineering proficiency is the PLADES (Plant Design Software) modeling, which not only facilitates smooth project execution but also gives it an edge with enhanced quality. It also enables all the L&T-S&L offices in India and S&L’s offices in Chicago to work concurrently on the common platform, thereby offering cost effective, optimized engineering solutions at a global level.

VISION
‘ To become a leading integrated engineering solutions provider in the global power sector, continuously creating value for our stakeholders.

MISSION
We will :
‘ Be responsive to customer needs, delivering optimal solutions and value-added services
‘ Ensure sustainable growth and professional excellence using state-of-the-art technology, process-driven approaches, eco-friendly solutions and IT enabled tools
‘ Foster a culture of mutual trust, respect, teamwork, continuous learning, innovation, challenge and employee empowerment to provide a growth-oriented workplace
‘ Adhere to fair, transparent and ethical practices in interactions with all stakeholders, in keeping the tenets of good corporate citizenship
‘ Remain flexible and agile, continually adapting to the changing business environment

ABOUT L&T

Larsen & Toubro is a USD 14.3 billion technology, engineering, construction, manufacturing and financial services conglomerate, with global operations. It is ranked 4th in the global list of Green Companies in the industrial sector by reputed international magazine Newsweek, and ranked the world’s 9th Most Innovative Company by Forbes International. L&T is one of the largest and most respected companies in India’s private sector. A strong, customer’focused approach and the constant quest for top-class quality have enabled L&T to attain and sustain leadership in its major lines of business over seven decades.

ABOUT S&L

Sargent & Lundy LLC (S&L), headquartered in Chicago is acknowledged as a premier consultant in power industry worldwide for more than 120 years. Sargent & Lundy provides complete consulting, engineering, and project development services for all types of fossil-fuel, nuclear, and renewable power generation and power delivery projects. S&L has designed over 927 Electrical Generating units representing approximately 1,35,000 MW of capacity of Power Plants, which includes combined cycle power plants, gas based and coal based projects. Besides S&L also has extensive experience in Nuclear Power projects and Renewal Energy (Solar, Wind, Biomass etc.).

INTRODUCTION
Every organization in today’s era is facing challenges as to changed nature of work and work place environment due to many technological advancement and such other factors. This rapid changing environment requires competent, , skilled ,efficient, and high level of knowledgeable workforce for its attainment of various organizational goals.
As these employees in organization are on larger numbers. Those employees may be skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled .So as of these employees as has to process various task in an organization which needs such specialized skill for their allocated works, and therefore they require the specific training for their specific task to be performed. Therefore every organization has the training program for their activity. Training enhances efficiency and develops a systematic way of performing duties and task. Training helps out in bridging the gap between the job requirement and employees present specification.
Training as an organizational activity requires a huge amount of investment, time and energy which leads to development of employees. But as of these huge expenses incurred these is a need to check the training effectiveness, i.e. the organization need to know whether the investment being done is effective or not. It’s an assessment of the impact of training on trainee’s performance. Therefore training effectives check is an important process of an organization .Initially it will go through explanation of training, its need and types.

TRAINING

TRAINING
Training is the process of that enhances the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. Training process helps in moulding the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. It is condisdered as a continuous and never ending in nature. It’s an planned effort done by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.
Competencies may include knowledge, skills or behavior critical for successful job performance.
‘ The goal of training is for employees is to master their competencies and apply them to their day-to-day activities and to regular working process .
‘ Using training to gain a competitive advantage, a company should view training broadly as a way to create intellectual capital.
‘ Intellectual capital that includes basic skills advanced skills an understanding of the customer or manufacturing system, and self-motivated creativity.
Training is considered as a short term educational process helping employees to learn knowledge and skills, behavior, aptitude and attitudes.Traning is basically job_oriented and teaches the employees the new techniques and ways of performing the jobs and operations.
Training needs
Training is considered as a key input in developing manpower in an organization that’s helps in improving the employees job performance
‘ Training matches the employees specifications with their job requirements and their organizational needs.
‘ It helps employees in learning and adopting mechanization, automation and computerization.
‘ Helps them in promotion and getting an higher position in an organization and self-development.

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
Training basically is an important process of imparting the knowledge to the employees that helps in improving productiveness and their behavioural pattern.training is a vital and necessary activity in all the organization as it plays a larger part in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the eastablishment.

TRAINING METHODS:
Every organization based on their functions has different types of training methods but the basic methods are:
There are two methods of training:
A. On-the-job training methods
B. Off-the-job training methods

A. On-the-job training methods
On the job training method is also called as ‘Internal Training Method’. And usually method is suitable for all levels of employees, workers, executives and supervisors.
Here in this method the employees gets the training on the job and even at the work place itself when he/she is actually is doing the job. This method is also called as ‘learning by doing’ Some of its examples are assignments, coaching, job rotation, etc.
B. Off-the-job training methods
Off the job training method is also called as ‘External Training Method’.this methos id designes and intended to impart training to the employees by supplying the required knowledge and skills to the employees away from job and the workplace. Some of it examples are: Class room lecture,role playing ,etc

TRAININIG EFFECTIVENESS

TRAININIG EFFECTIVENESS
As every training program made by the organization has lots of investment incurred in it.so it is necessary to check whether the training program has brought required changes or not it becomes necessity to evaluate them.
Training and development program starts with the training and development identification and ends with evaluation. The evaluation as is a critical investment done for succession planning, promotion and employees development.So as of so much of expenditure done on it the organization needs to know whether their expenditure done is effective or not.and for these reasons continuous evaluation of training is necessary.
Defination:
TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
Training effectiveness is measured to identify results or outcomes from training process in organization. It is a formal attempt to determine the individual and organizational impact of attempts to make people or organizations more effective.
PURPOSE OF TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
‘ Evaluation is done as to identify the effectiveness of training programs that are implemented.
‘ Adjust training plans for future time.
Basically the purpose of training effectiveness is to identify on to how were the training programs implemented and what all were the changes or effects that were seen before and after the training program been delivered
‘ To see whether the training programs objectives are been met or not.
‘ To determine the effectiveness of the different components of training and development programme i.e. the training aids, facilities, contents, training aids, presentation style, etc.)

‘ To justify the training and development cost.

‘ To decide who all should participate in future programme.

‘ To assess on to which all participants participants gained the most or the least from specific programmes that were been delivered.

‘ To gain the practical insight in order to develop , design and deliver tnhe more effective future programs.

Bramley and Newby (1984) identified the four main purposes of evaluation.

‘ Feedback: Linking the learning outcomes to the objectives and providing a form of the quality control.

‘ Control: linking training to the organizational activities so as to consider the cost effectiveness;

‘ Research: Determines the relationship among the learning, training and and how this gaines knowledge is transferred to the job.

‘ Intervention: Here the results of the overall evaluation influences the context in which it actuallty occurs.

TRAINING EVALUATION PROCESS

It is the basic process of examining the training program.It examines whether the candidates are implementing the learning’s of the training program to the workplace or not.

There are there steps where the training is evaluated:

A: Before the training
B: On the training
C: After the training

A: Before the training
The skills and knowledgw of the learners are assessed before thwe training program.Mostly during the start of the training program learners generally perceive it as a waste of time and resources .It basically helps us to know the
that what type of training is to be given to the employees and define the areas where their skills is to be developed.

B: During the training
It is the phase at which short regular test are been conducted on the trainees to evaluate their training learnings.

C: After the training
It is the phase in which the trainees learners skilld and knowledge are assessed again to measure the actual effectiveness of the training program on them. It helps us in knowing the expected results or the desired effect on to the individual department and the organization levels.

Thus to evaluate various types of techniques are used, they are:

Techniques of Evaluation
The various methods for training evaluation are:
‘ Observation
‘ Questionnaire
‘ Interview
‘ Self diaries
‘ Self recording of specific incidents

Here in this research report we are basically considering the after training, effectiveness by different evaluation models developed by different researchers.
TRAINING EVALUATION MODELS
As for evaluation and effectiveness of the training program. Different organizations use different type of models to test the effectiveness on the employees these models are been developed by different researchers.
Here in this report you will go through different models a broad classification of it is done and the types of analysis they follow to evaluate the training program.

Here we have considered 3 different types of models, they are:
A. Kirkpatrick Model
B. CIRO approach:
C. Phillip’s Evaluation approach

A. Kirkpatrick Model
If a traijning is been delivered to an organization, then we probably know that how important it is to measuring the training effectiveness.afetr all as it is so niot important to spend time and moneyon the training that does not provide good returns.
So therefore to evaluate the Kirkpatrick’s four level model for training evaluation can help youobjectively to analyze the effectiveness and impact of your training, so that you can improvise in future .

The Four Levels
Sir Donald Kirkpatrick, Professor Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin and the past president of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), first published his Four-Level Training Evaluation Model in 1959, It was introduced in the US Training and Development Journal.
The model was then firstly updated in year 1975, and then again in the year 1994, when he published his one of the best-known and famous work, “Evaluating Training Programs.”

The four levels are:
1. Reaction.
2. Learning.
3. Behavior.
4. Results.
Getting through each level in greater detail.
Level 1: Reaction
Reactionn level measures how the trainees react to the training program. Ans as of the training program it becomes important to measure reaction because it would be helpful the futue training programs and also helps out in identifying important areas or topics that are missing from the training
‘ By completed participant feedback questionnaire
‘ Bt the informal comments from participants
‘ By doing focus group sessions with participants

.Level 2: Learning
Learning level helps us in measutring the actual increase in the level knowledge after training it helps in knowing that whether thje training objectives been me or not.this helps out in knowing what all the employees have gaines from the traing and what are the thing that can be done to improve the training in near future.
‘ pre- and post-test scores
‘ on-the-job assessments
‘ supervisor reports
Level 3: Behavior
Here in this level you measure the trainees behavioural level after the training,basically it on how the trainees apply the information.
It may also be seen or observed that the level of behavior has not changed but it does not only imply that the training is ineffective or the trainee have not learned anything.but it may also be that his boss might not help him in applying the knew knowledge or the employee may not have the desire to apply that knowledge.It is measured by
‘ The completed self-assessment of the questionnaire
‘ on-the-job observation
‘ by the reports obtained from customers, peers and manager.
Level 4: Results
Here in this level you measure the final results of your training program . It includes the outcomes of you and your organization.Which can be good for business,good for bottom line and good for employees.
‘ financial reports
‘ quality inspections

How to Apply the Model
Reaction
Initially we have to start by identifying the ways to measure the reaction. questionaries’ that can be addressed are:
‘ Did the training was time worthy for the training ‘? Do you think that the training program was successfully exucated ‘? What all were the actual strength and the weakness of the program ‘? Was the presentation style and the venue suitable ‘? Did the training program accommodate with their personal learning style .
Next, identify how you want to measure these reactions. And for doing this you’ll typically use employees satisfaction survey or the questionnaires; however you can also watch trainees’ body language during the training, and get the oral or verbal feedback from the traines by asking them their experience.
Once you’ve gathered this information, you have to look at it carefully. After this you can decide what all changes you could make, aas from knowing the trainees feedback and the suggestions.
Learning
Here to measure the learning initially you need to start by identifying what all you want to evaluate i.e. it could be the gained knowledge, skills, or attitudes.it also helps out in measuring both before and after training.
Behavior
It can be really challenging to measure behavior effectively or accurately . And the reasons for this is the longer-term activity which should take place weeks or months after the initial training is been done.

Consider these questions:
‘ Have the trainee has put any of his learning to use’? Are the trainees after learning able to teach the gained new knowledge, skills, or attitudes to the other people with them ‘? Are trainees aware of the changes in their behavior?
Practically the one beast way to measure the behavior is to conduct the observation and interviews over the time
Also, it happens that behavior only changes if the conditions that are considered are favorable, i.e. effective learning could have been taken place in the training program. Similarly if i happens that if the overall organizational has not setup up for any such behavior changes, which may result in non-applicability of the training learnings.
Alternatively, it also happens that the trainees may or may not receive the required support, the recognition, or any knd of rewards for their behavior changes from their superior. So, over time, they start disregarding he skills or knowledge that they have learned, and finally go back to their old existing behaviors.
Results
As of from the above other levels , measurement of the final results of the training program is likely to be the most time consuming as well as costly. And it has been found that some of the biggest challenges are identifying which benefits, outcomes or the final results are most closely linked to the training program, and also see what all are coming up with an effective way to measure these outcomes over the long term.
Here are some of the outcomes that can be to considered, as to of the objectives of your training:
‘ Increased employee retention.
‘ Increased production.
‘ Higher morale.
‘ Reduced waste.
‘ Increased sales.
‘ Higher quality ratings.

B. CIRO approach:
The CIRO (context-input-reaction-outcome) approach is a 4 level training evaluation approach by was originally developed by Warr ,bird and Racham. This approach is based upon the view that the most important purpose of evaluation is to improve that overall functioning of the program.
1. Context evaluation
2. Input evaluation
3. Reaction evaluation
4. Outcome evaluation
Context evaluation
Context evaluation involves the collection of information about the performance deficiency,assessing the information that is to eastablish training needs and on the base of those findings, and then setting the objectives at the other three level.
Here the context of the learning event concerns with obtaining and as well as using the information about the current operational situation in order to determine training needs and objectives. It also determines if training is needed.
Ultimate objectives: These are some of the particular deficiency in organization that program will eliminate
This process evaluates basically 3 type of processes in it..
1. Intermediate objective: Measurement of changes in employees work behavior necessary for attainment of the ultimate objectives.
2. Immediate objectives: Attainment of new knowledge, skills or attitudes that must be acquired by the employees to change their behavior and so as to reach to the intermediate objectives.

2. Input evaluation
Input evaluation concerns with how well the learning event was actually been planned, developed, managed and executed. Where as it also helps out to determine the cost efficiency, effectiveness and the feasibility level with the major inputs. Whereas it also involves to analyse the resources available and determining how well they can be deployed so as to achieve the maximum results of the desired objectives.
3. Reaction evaluation
Reaction evaluation here particularly concerns with obtaining and using information about participants reactions to bring out the improvement in the HRD process. And the distinguishing feature of this type of evaluation is that it rely on subjective inputs of participants. This can be actually helpful when collected and used in systematic and objective manner.

5. Outcome evaluation
This helps out to know or assess what were the actual changes been observed as a result of learning event.Depending on the object of the evaluation exercise and resources available, outcome should be measured at any or all of these following levels.

The learner level: This level involves establishing changes in the level of learners knowledge, attitudes and skills at the completion of the training program which change me measured with the level of skills,knowledge and attitude at the beginning of the program.
The workplace level: Here in the workplace level the changes taking place in the learners job behaviour at the workplace is been observed. Here this changes can be measured by the appraisal, discussion and observation with the manager of learners /customers/peers/clients.
The team/department or unit level: Team level involves in the identification of the changes that take place in the unit, team and the department as to the result of the learning event.it becomes very difficult to measure the changes at the department level this changes may include alteration in the departmental scrap rates, output, costs, absenteeism as well as the staff turnover rates.
The organizational level: This level involves to identify the changes that takes place in the organization as a whole after the end of the training program .Here too measuring the outcome is quite difficult. These change that may occur after the training program can be the change in culture of organization,reduced level of conflict,more flexibility and enchanced ability to attract and retain value workers.

Phillip’s Evaluation approach
Phillips’s five level approach.
Here Phillips model is almost similar to Kirkpatrick’s four-level model and has an additional level Return on investment . And here it has been used in the business so to determine the value of an investment in financial terms
ROI is calculated in order to show value, in financial terms, of a training investment .
The levels of Phillips’s framework are
(1) Reaction and planned action;
(2) Learning;
(3) Job application;
(4) Business results
(5) Return on investment.

The Phillips Model :
The Phillips model measures training outcomes at five levels: Level Brief Description
1. Reaction, Satisfaction, & Planned Action Measures participant reaction to and satisfaction with the training program and participant’s plans for action
2. Learning Measures skills and knowledge gains
3. Application and Implementation Measures changes in on-the-job application, behavior change, and implementation.
4. Business Impact Measures business impact
5. Return on Investment (ROI) Compares the monetary value of the business outcomes with the costs of the training program

Level 1 – Reaction, Satisfaction, and Planned Action:
It helps out in measuring the participants’ satisfaction level with the program as well as their plans to use what they have learned. Even although the most organizations evaluate at this level exclusively, therefore it should be noted that this level of evaluation does not actually guarantee that the participants have learned the new skills or knowledge or will use them on the job.

Level 2 ‘ Learning:
Here in the learning level using tests, simulations, group evaluations, skills practice, role playing and such other important assessment tools, and here the evaluations also assess how much participants have learned and what all have and what all are their gains. And again, although it is very useful to know that participants have absorbed the new skills and knowledge, evn though this positive outcome does not ensure that the participants will use their new learning when they are back on the job.
Level 3 – Behaviour, Application and Implementation:In evaluation assesses whether (and how much) participants applied the new knowledge and skills to his/her job. It measures the extent to which the new learning is been applied in the workplace (or changes behaviours) determines its success. Here too, it should be remembered, a favourable Level 3 evaluation does not guarantee that business outcomes will be positive.
Level 4 – Business Impact:
This measures the extend to which business measures have improved after the training program. It also nmeasures the output,quality time and cost. The level 4 measures the extent to which business measures have improved after training. Its measures are output, quality, output, time and cost. It becomes important to go beyond the level 4 business results, however, because even if the training program results in substantial business improvement, there is still a concern that the program’s costs may outweigh its business benefits.
Level 5 – Return on Investment (ROI):
ROI is the ultimate level of evaluation. It compares the monetary benefits from the program with the program costs. (ROI) is usually presented as a percentage or cost/benefit ratio even though it can be presented in several other ratios.
The Phillips’ model actually evolves from that can be differentiated from, the earlier Kirkpatrick model by the adoption of return on investment so as to yield the additional , critical insight for the evaluation. Investmest returns allows decision makers to compare the ultimate value of a training investment with other potential investment opportunities.
Isolation techniques:
Another key technique introduced by Phillips is ‘Isolation.’ Here I n the past, the major barrier to evaluating the business impact of training was the perception that it is all but impossible to separate training’s impact from the many other potential factors driving bottom line results. Where as an important feature of the Dr. Phillips’ evaluation model, therefore it is the recognition that the credibility depends on the extent to which the evaluation accounts for these other factors as such. Phillips model here uses ten techniques to isolate the business impact of training from other potential sources of business improvement i.e. the overall changes in the ( interest rate, marketing programs, employee bonus schemes, competitive environment, seasonal effects that temporarily contributes to the improvement in the business, etc ).
Intangibles:
Here in this models a further addition of intangibles is done to the Kirkpatrick model. As to this method it become important to recognize that some outcomes cannot be easily measured and converted to monetary values. With attempt to put a dollar value on outcomes such as customer satisfactiom ,a less stressful work environment, and the employees satisfaction can be extremely difficult ,and its results may be of the questionable value.

Suggestions for Evaluating Training
Mostly evaluators look for the validity .accuracy and reliability in their evaluations.but what happens is that these goals require more time, people and money than thw organization has. They mostly look for the evaluation approaches that are relevant and practical.
Training activities can be evaluated before, during and after the training activities , by considetring some of the very basic suggestions.
Before the Implementation Phase
‘ Whether the selected training and development methods really result in the employee’s learning the knowledge and skills needed to perform the task or carry out the role? Did the other employee’s have used the methods and been successful’? Considering applying the methods to a highly skilled employee. Inquire the employee of their impressions of the methods.
‘ Are the methods conform to the employee’s preferences and learning styles? Did the employee briefly review the methods, e.g., overheads documentation, etc. Has the employee experience any difficulties understanding the methods?
During Implementation of Training
‘ Regularly ask the employee how they’re doing. Are they been understanding what’s all being discussed ‘? Conduct a short test periodically, e.g., have the employee explain the main points of what was just described to him, e.g., in the lecture.
‘ Check that whether the employee enthusiastically taking part in the activities? See whether he or she coming late and leaving early. Many a times surprisingly it happens that that oftens the learners leave the course of workshop and complain it as to be the complete waste of time. So as to get rid of these ask them to give the raitings to the program i.e. from 4 to 1 which meands 4 being the highest and 1 being this lowest.
After Completion of the Training
‘ Compare the before and after test results.
‘ Compare the I results of interview of him or her before and after the training.
‘ Observe and watch him or her performs the task or conduct the roles.
‘ Keep an expert evaluator from inside or outside the organization to evaluate the learner’s knowledge and skills.

CONCLUSION

Training evaluation is said to be the most important aspect of training and development program. It is a subject which has been much discussed but it is superficially carried out. And there are various reasons for that which has been discussed during earlier times . One of the main reasons is that all models are descriptive and subjective in nature, its classified indicators for evaluating training and development is not clearly given and explained. So from the above discussion it has been found out that Kirkpatrick model is widely used and accepted model at reaction level but in this case also what should be the main indicators at reaction level as well as the other levels is not explained properly. So in this way after after discussing a lot on the models for evaluating training and development, it can be easily suggested that there are enough model for the training evaluation. And further they should be further modified by giving its main indicators and explained properly about each issue so that evaluation of training and development can be properly carried out with the greater effectiveness.

ANNEXURES :
Program Feedback/EFFECTIVENESS

Subject : People Management
Faculty :Anjan kumar
Strength :76
No. of participants : 19
Raiting scale: 4 (max) – 1(min)

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
CONTENT 15 3 0 0 69 3.63
DEPT COVERAGE 10 8 0 0 64 3.37
ADEQUACY OF DURATION 8 9 1 0 61 3.21
EFFECTIENESS IN MEETING OBJECTIVES 14 4 0 0 68 3.58
OVERALL RAITING OF THE PROGRAM 14 4 0 0 68 3.58
AVERAGE 3.47
PERCENTAGE

90.97222222

FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
LEADERSHIP 14 4 0 0 68 3.78
POWER 17 1 0 0 71 3.94
MOTIVATION 11 6 1 0 64 3.56
AVERAGE 3.76
PERCENTAGE 93.98

FACULTY FFEDBACK

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
PRESENTATION SKILLS 15 3 0 0 69 3.78
GETTING PARCIPANTS INVOLVED 17 1 0 0 71 3.94
USE VARIETY OF ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 9 9 0 0 63 3.5
RELATING TO RAEAL LIFE 10 8 0 0 64 3.56
QUERIES SOLVED 14 3 1 1 67 3.72
AVERAGE 3.71
PERCENTAGE 92.78

Subject : Interpersonal skills and Personell effectiveness
Faculty :Bhavin Bhatt
Strength : 96
No. of participants : 24

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
CONTENT 15 7 2 0 85 3.54
DEPT COVERAGE 12 10 2 0 82 3.42
ADEQUACY OF DURATION 7 13 4 0 75 3.13
EFFECTIENESS IN MEETING OBJECTIVES 15 8 1 0 86 3.58
OVERALL RAITING OF THE PROGRAM 17 6 1 0 88 3.57
AVERAGE 3.42
PERCENTAGE 85.42

FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
UNDERSTANDING SKILLS 14 9 1 0 85 3.54
MANAGING DIFFERENCES 15 8 1 0 86 3.58
COMMUNICATION 17 5 2 0 87 3.63
TIME AND ENERGY MGMT 12 11 1 0 83 3.46
AVERAGE 3.55
PERCENTAGE 88.8

FACULTY FFEDBACK

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
PRESENTATION SKILLS 20 4 0 0 92 3.83
GETTING PARCIPANTS INVOLVED 21 3 0 0 93 3.88
USE VARIETY OF ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 13 10 1 0 84 3.5
RELATING TO RAEAL LIFE 14 9 1 0 85 3.54
QUERIES SOLVED 15 9 0 0 87 3.63
AVERAGE 3.68
PERCENTAGE 91.88

Subject :Self Empowerment
Faculty : Harshida Pethapuria
Strength : 88
No. of participants : 22

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
CONTENT 8 14 0 0 74 3.36
DEPT COVERAGE 7 14 1 0 72 3.27
ADEQUACY OF DURATION 7 12 3 0 70 3.18
EFFECTIENESS IN MEETING OBJECTIVES 6 18 0 0 72 3.27
OVERALL RAITING OF THE PROGRAM 8 14 0 0 74 3.36
AVERAGE 3.27
PERCENTAGE 81.82

FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
SELF CONFIDENCE 9 12 1 0 74 3.36
OWNERSHIP & RESPONSIBILITY 9 13 0 0 75 3.41
GOAL SETTING 9 13 0 0 75 3.41
ACTION ORIENTATION DECISION 6 13 3 0 69 3.14
DECISION MAKING 8 13 1 0 73 3.32
AVERAGE 3.33
PERCENTAGE 83.18

FACULTY FFEDBACK

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
PRESENTATION SKILLS 19 3 0 0 85 3.86
ABILITY TO CITE RELEVENT EXAMPLES 12 9 1 0 77 3.5
ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 10 11 1 0 76 3.41
ABILITY TO GET ACROSS CENTRAL MESSAGE 8 14 0 0 74 3.38
SOLVE QUERIES 13 9 0 0 79 3.59
OVERALL RAITING 12 10 0 0 78 3.55
AVERAGE 3.55
PERCENTAGE 88.64

Subject :Communication skills
Faculty : Samir Desai
Strength : 88
No. of participants : 14

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
MEETING COURSE OBJECTIVES 7 5 2 0 47 3.36
INTERACTIVITY & FUN 13 1 0 0 55 3.93
APPLICIBILITY TO YOUR CURRENT PROFILE 4 8 2 0 44 3.14
ADEQUACY OF DURATION 2 10 2 0 42 3
AVERAGE 3.36
PERCENTAGE 83.93

FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
BASICS OF COMMUNICATION 9 4 1 0 50 3.57
LISTENING SKILLS 8 6 0 0 50 3.57
TELE-COMMUNICATION 6 8 0 0 48 3.43
ASSERTIVENESS 8 6 0 0 50 3.57
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 6 7 1 0 47 3.36
AVERAGE 3.5
PERCENTAGE 87.5

FACULTY FFEDBACK

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
PRESENTATION SKILLS 10 4 0 0 52 3.71
ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 11 3 0 0 53 3.79
USE ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 8 5 1 0 49 3.5
RELATE TO REAL LIFE 2 11 1 0 43 3.07
SOLVE QUERIES 4 9 1 0 45 3.21
OVERALL RAITING 3 11 0 0 45 3.21
AVERAGE 3.42
PERCENTAGE 85.42

Subject :MBIT
Faculty : Anil Shinde
Strength : 88
No. of participants : 11

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM
Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
MEETING COURSE OBJECTIVES 9 3 0 0 45 3.75
INTERACTIVITY & FUN 10 2 0 0 46 3.83
APPLICIBILITY TO YOUR CURRENT PROFILE 10 2 0 0 46 3.83
ADEQUACY OF DURATION 7 4 1 0 43 3.58
AVERAGE 3.75
PERCENTAGE 93.75

FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
DICHOMOMIES 8 4 0 0 44 3.67
SENSING Vs INTUTION 10 2 0 0 46 3.83
THINKING Vs FEELING 8 4 0 0 44 3.67
JUDGING Vs PERCEIVING 8 4 0 0 44 3.67
EXTRAVERSION Vs INTROVERSION 8 4 0 0 44 3.67
MBIT INSTRUMENTS & ITS PROCESSING 7 4 1 0 42 3.5
AVERAGE 3.67
PERCENTAGE 91.67

FACULTY FFEDBACK

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
PRESENTATION SKILLS 7 4 1 0 42 3.5
ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 6 6 0 0 42 3.5
USE ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 6 5 1 0 41 3.42
RELATE TO REAL LIFE 5 6 1 0 40 3.33
SOLVE QUERIES 6 6 0 0 42 3.5
OVERALL RAITING 7 5 0 0 43 3.58
AVERAGE 3.47
PERCENTAGE 86.81

Subject : Business Etiquettes
Faculty : Sachin bordavelkar
Strength : 88
No. of participants : 10

FEEDBACK ON PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
MEETING COURSE OBJECTIVES 4 5 1 0 33 3.3
INTERACTIVITY & FUN 6 3 1 0 35 3.5
APPLICIBILITY TO YOUR CURRENT PROFILE 4 6 0 0 34 3.4
ADEQUACY OF DURATION 1 6 3 0 28 2.8
AVERAGE 3.25
PERCENTAGE 81.25

FEEDBACK ON TOPICS COVERED DURING THE PROGRAM

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
HANDLING INTRODUCTIONS 4 6 0 0 34 3.4
BUSINESS CARD ETIQUTTE 7 3 0 0 37 3.7
GROOMING & POWER DRESSING 4 6 0 0 34 3.4
TABLE MANNERS / DINNING ETIQUETTES 2 7 1 0 31 3.1
EMAIL ETTIUETTES 5 4 1 0 34 3.4
TELEPHONE ETIQUETTES 5 5 0 0 35 3.5
YOU & YOUR DIRECT SUPERVISOR 2 5 3 0 29 2.9
ETIQUETTES IN MODERN WORKPLACE 2 7 1 0 31 3.1
AVERAGE 3.31
PERCENTAGE 82.8125

FACULTY FFEDBACK

Particulars 4 3 2 1 A B
PRESENTATION SKILLS 9 1 0 0 39 3.9
ABILITY TI INVOLVE PARTICIPANTS 4 4 2 0 32 3.2
USE ACTIVITY BASED TOOLS 3 5 2 0 31 3.1
RELATE TO REAL LIFE 7 2 1 0 36 3.6
SOLVE QUERIES 5 5 0 0 35 3.5
OVERALL RAITING 6 4 0 0 36 3.6
AVERAGE 3.48
PERCENTAGE 87.08

BIBLIOGRAPHY :
‘ http://www.businessballs.com
‘ http://www.kirkpatrickpartners.com
‘ http://www.mindtools.com
‘ http://www.yourhrworld.com
‘ http://www.mba-mentor.com
‘ http://www.iosrjournals.org
‘ http://www.managemnetparadise.com
‘ http://www.ispi.org
‘ http://www.jica.go.jp
‘ liveseysolar.com
‘ en.wikipedia.org
‘ http://www.google.com

in here…

Essay about Training and Development

2212 Words9 Pages

Training and development has become increasingly essential to the success of modern organisations, yet some still look at training as a problem or as something that is not taken seriously. Training and development is one key approach used by organisations to improve and maintain the capabilities of its workforce. However, many experts distinguish between training and development, being that training tends to be more closely focused and adapted towards short-term performance concerns, while development tends to be adapted more towards expanding an individual’s skills for future responsibilities (Snell and Bohlander 2007). The main reason that organisations train their employees is to bring their knowledge, skills and abilities up to the…show more content…

Furthermore, spoiled work, damages, and accidents to equipment and machinery can be kept to a minimum by well trained employees, continued training helps employees develop their ability to learn by adapting themselves to new work methods, learning to use new kinds of equipment, and adjusting to major changes in work relationships and job content, also, through training, new employees learn to measure up to standards for performance, thereby satisfying their human need for personal growth and increasing their value to the organisation (Pigors and Myers 1977).
Similarly, Longenecker and Fink (2005) assert that the benefits derived from training are manifold, and these include; exposure to new and better practices and ideas for application, leads to reflection, self-appraisal and retrospection, motivates employees to improve performance, encourages career development planning, helps identify specific performance problems and challenges an employee to think differently, to name a few. Other benefits are a more flexible workforce, improved performance of existing employees, decreased supervision, higher skill levels and reduced learning time, thus reducing learning costs, improved organisation morale, and to ensure for succession (Molander 1989).

Show More

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *