Nathaniel Hawthorne said, “Easy reading is damn hard writing.” Whether that is true or not is a question for the ages, but many agree that writing can be intimidating, especially to undergraduate college students not used to writing academic papers. In an educational paradox, grammar, usage and writing skills are often not covered after middle school, and yet undergraduate programs have high expectations for the papers their students submit.
Common Academic Writing StylesWhatever your major, it’s a safe bet you won’t graduate from college without writing a decent number of academic papers. If you feel unprepared, don’t panic; there are many resources available to you. This writing guide breaks down the types of writing you’ll be expected to do, and also offers tips for successfully drafting anything in your undergrad.
Letter of Intent
A personal statement, sometimes called a letter of intent, is a personalized document commonly used in applications for undergraduate and graduate schools, as well as job applications. A personal statement illustrates your accomplishments and more importantly, your goals. When writing a personal statement for school admission, you should clearly state how you plan to use your knowledge and skills to further your career interests. The following guidelines will help you out:
- Your personal statement should be tailored to reflect the expectations of your reader. Schools and businesses that require a letter of intent may provide fairly precise specifications, so make a point of really familiarizing yourself with the instructions. An admissions board at a graduate school, for example, is more likely to respond well to a detailed explanation of how the program will further your research interests. A potential employer, on the other hand, needs to know how you plan to use a specific skill set to meet long-term goals set by both the employer and yourself.
- Once you’ve established your reader’s expectations, it’s a good idea to make a list of the skills and experience you have that will benefit a school or employer. List any awards or credentials you’ve earned along the way, as well as participation in relevant activities or professional organizations. Lastly, communicate what you hope to gain by employment with the organization or admission into the program. Speak to a long-term goal, such as eventual doctoral study or research into an industry issue.
- Introducing yourself. Explain why you stand out from other candidates using the achievements you’ve listed. While a boastful tone isn’t palatable, listing specific accomplishments in a way that shows you are competent and unique is.
- Next, tell your reader why you are attracted to that particular school or company. Detail what about it excites you, and illustrate how your talents and interests mesh with its goals or vision. Take a confident and interested tone, but avoid superficial interest.
- Finally, wrap up your letter with a request for an interview; don’t overlook this call to action, as it reiterates your interest in a way that inspires action on the company or schools behalf. Make all of your contact information easily accessible to your reader.
The essay is arguably the most widely used writing model in college. So it’s important to master the essential elements early in your academic career.
There are several types of essays, all of which have the same basic structure. A thesis statement, which is an idea that can be defended, is made in the first paragraph. The thesis typically states a hypothesis on any topic, whether it’s about the behaviors of certain variables in a physics lab or a 15th century author’s intent in an allegorical poem. The bulk of your essay should dissect and explore your thesis and answer any questions the reader may have about the topic. A well-written essay will have anticipated the reader’s arguments and debunked them clearly as the thesis is further explored in the paper. Finally, a conclusion paragraph restates the thesis and the defending arguments in a brief and succinct manner.
Common types of essays include the following:
- Narrative: Simply put, the narrative essay tells a story, usually in the first person. Sometimes called a descriptive essay, this form requires the writer to use vivid language to clearly illustrate events in a linear fashion. This narrative could be about a personal experience, or it could be an analysis of a book or other literary work. Regardless of the topic, narrative essays must still contain a thesis; this can be from your perspective or that of another author. The body of this essay should expand on this thesis; these essays turn on the creative use of language, so extremely descriptive writing is called for here. Your reader should feel drawn into the story you’re telling.
- Expository: The expository essay is one in which the student sets forth an idea and then explores it with available evidence. These essays are based on facts and factual analysis, and are not generally written in the first person. Clarity is the key to constructing a good expository essay; not only should your thesis be crystal clear, but transitions between evidence and arguments in the body of your paper must also be recognizable. Because it is important that the reader understand the sequence of discussion, the format of this essay is particularly important. As always, the thesis statement should be in the introductory paragraph. The amount of exposition a professor requires can vary, but a standard formula is one paragraph for introduction, three paragraphs for thesis defense and analysis of evidence, and one paragraph that rounds out, or concludes, the essay.
- Persuasive: A persuasive essay is written with the express intent to convince the reader to form an opinion about something. A well-written persuasive essay anticipates the reader’s resistance and counters it with facts, evidence and reasoning, fairly representing all sides of the argument. While this may seem to echo the purpose of the expository essay, the persuasive (or argumentative) essay requires considerably more research and usually produces a longer paper. The thesis is introduced, followed by paragraphs containing evidence in the form of statistics, facts or logical explanation. At the conclusion, the thesis is re-addressed in light of the evidence the writer has presented, which ultimately should serve to convince the reader of the author’s point.
- Comparative: This essay is also popular with college professors, in which students are asked to compare and contrast two similar things. It’s important to determine what basis of comparison you should use, because this will inform the flow of your paper. You may be asked to compare two very similar things, or to dissect key differences between things that appear similar, or both. Comparative essays generally require considerable research and planning. After you investigate and list the similarities and differences of your subjects, you must present a thesis clearly to readers. You may organize your information point by point, or you may thoroughly analyze one subject before moving to the next. The structure you choose is often dictated by the quantity of your research, as well as qualities of the subjects themselves. The challenge of comparative writing is to reach a definitive conclusion and then to clearly defend your reasoning.
- Cause and Effect: These essays explore the relation of an event or condition to another event or condition. While it may seem simple on the surface, it’s easy to confuse causality with correlation; the writer’s challenge is to clearly prove causality. Generally, professors require an analysis of a known cause and effect, but a writer who has discovered a new root cause to a known effect may also use this format to present new data. The essay’s introduction clearly defines issues at hand and presents a thesis that states a known cause. Supporting paragraphs should be specific; first the cause is analyzed, followed by an analysis of its effect. Finally, the cause-and-effect relationship is discussed. The concluding paragraph should answer the question, “Why?”
A research paper involves conducting extensive research on a specific topic and supplying that research, along with your analysis, to your readers. While this type of writing may initially seem intimidating, it’s more approachable when broken down into manageable chunks of work. The following guidelines will assist you in writing a research paper:
- Understand your topic. Generally, undergraduate students are assigned research topics and provided specific prompts. If you’re asked to choose a topic, make sure it’s narrow enough to allow you clear focus, but broad enough that you’ll have access to adequate research. You may need to work with your professor for clarification. When you have this information, ask yourself why it’s a topic of interest and what you stand to learn from your research. This information will ultimately lead to your thesis statement, though it is likely to morph somewhat as you conduct your research.
- Conduct a literature review. This phase of your project helps you discover the information sources you will cite in your final paper. Look for high-profile studies, news stories, statements by industry specialists and books by leading researchers in the field. Do rely on the Internet to provide an idea of the scope of research available to you, but always be wary of data sources, especially sources you’ve stumbled upon online.
- Organize your data. Whenever you list out ideas that support your thesis, you need to back them up with correct citations. If an opposing argument is relevant, give it equal time, cite it and then debunk it with your data. If you conducted an original research project or case study, summarize your findings in relation to the rest of the paper’s goals. Finally, conclude your article by restating your thesis and giving an overview of the supporting data.
Essay questions are a popular choice among professors for exams. Understanding the basic structure of an essay, determining the audience, deriving a thesis and illustrating your argument all the way through to a valid conclusion – and doing so under pressure – is something of an art form. However, exam essays are merely a shortened version of standard essay format, minus statistics and other research. A successfully executed exam essay is focused, organized, supported by reason and well-written.
Some tips for effective exam essay writing include:
- Read essay prompts slowly and carefully
- Budget your time for each essay question
- Sketch outlines on scratch paper as you organize your thoughts
- Place a thesis statement at the beginning of each exam answer
- Use supporting material that you covered in class
- Always proofread
GrammarIn today’s educational system, there are teachers who hold students to a higher standard in terms of proper grammar, syntax and spelling; however, there are high school teachers who don’t enforce these standards at all. This can make life especially difficult for undergraduate students tasked with their first writing assignments. Because the stakes are higher at the collegiate level, it may behoove you to refresh your memory of basic grammatical rules.
While it’s impossible to list virtually every common usage error, some are more common than others, including:
- They’re, their, there:They’re going to the store; It is their problem; Don’t stand there.
- Two, too, to:Two children played; I want to go, too; She drove to the mall.
- Your, you’re:I like your purse; You’re very funny.
- Weather, whether:The weather is so unpredictable; I’m not sure whether I want pancakes or waffles.
- A lot:I see a lot of snow (never alot)
- Loose, lose:My belt is loose; Don’t lose your backpack!
- Who, whom:Who said that?; To whom should I address this?
- Phase, faze:Oh, he’s just going through a phase; Christine was not fazed in the least.
- Since, because:I’ve been a redhead since I got divorced; The pool is closed because it’s thundering.
- Moot, mute:It’s a moot point now; I was mute with surprise.
- Principal, principle:She was named a principal partner in the firm; He refused to do it on principle.
Other typical errors college professors may find egregious include:
- Apostrophes: Apostrophes indicate contractions or possession, as in: That’s Catie’s geography book. Apostrophes should never be used to indicate a plural.
- Commas: Frequently overused, commas are used to separate items in a list, after an introductory phrase or to separate distinct thoughts that are related. The use of a conjunction is a good indicator of proper comma placement. For example: I’ll take the red, blue and yellow ones, but I don’t care for the green. Comma splices happen when usage rules for semicolons and commas are confused. Related independent clauses with no conjunction result in a comma splice: I really dislike eating meat, I don’t feel deprived at all. Instead, separate each thought with either punctuation or a conjunction following the comma: I really dislike eating meat, and I don’t feel deprived at all.
- Semicolons: Often confused with commas, a semicolon is used to separate related thoughts that are each independent clauses; no conjunctions are used. Pascal plays beautifully; he has studied with a private piano coach for many years.
- Affect and Effect: Affect is usually a verb, and effect is a usually a noun. The exceptions are unusual. I think some people underestimate her effect on students. I don’t think the principal is aware of the dress code’s effect.
- That and Which: That is a restrictive pronoun, meaning it has no qualifiers and is tied to its noun: I don’t like clothes that itch. Which, on the other hand, introduces a relative clause that allows qualifiers. I don’t like cashmere sweaters, which are itchy. A good rule of thumb: if a comma is required, which is probably your best choice.
- That and Who: Who is used in reference to people. That is used in reference to inanimate objects, animals or entities. Use: You’re exactly who I was looking for!, and The puppies that got out have been returned to the shelter.
- Quotation marks: Quotation marks indicate a quote. They do not indicate emphasis of any kind. They must also exist outside of any punctuation. Use: Jenny answered, “I’d much rather write fiction.” Not: Jenny “disliked” history and said, “I’d much rather write fiction”.
- Then and Than: Then is used in reference to time. Than is used when making comparisons. Then we left the arena, rather than wait for the end of the game.
- It’s and Its: It’s is a contraction of It is, which is the only time it’s necessary to use an apostrophe for this word. Its is a possessive pronoun. It’s the cutest thing when the puppy chases its tail.
- Fewer and Less: Fewer refers to something that is tangible and can be counted. Less refers to intangible ideas. She did fewer reps than yesterday, and This recipe needs less salt.
- Spellcheck errors:It really depends in the weather that day. Spellcheck is not the end-all solution for proofreading.
- Tense errors:I ran into him and he goes, “Hey!” Ran in this sentence is past tense, and goes is present tense.
- Unnecessary capitalization:I have a Bevy of Attorneys at my disposal. While this may seem obvious, many writers break this rule.
- Pronoun/antecedent agreement:Each reporter must file their own copy is incorrect because ‘their’ incorrectly modifies ‘reporter.’ Each reporter must file his or her own copy is correct.
For every broken rule in the English language, there is likely an online resource that breaks down the details. You may find these additional resources helpful.
CitationsProper citation of sources is importance in college; without it, plagiarism would be rampant. Proper citations allow for an easily-understood format, so that professors or other readers can look up your original data. There are three recognized schools of thought on proper citation: The Modern Language Association Style Guide (MLA), the American Psychology Association Style Guide (APA), or the Chicago Manual of Style.
According to the MLA Style Guide, citations should be used parenthetically within text. Each reference is signified in the text and specifically detailed on a Works Cited page added to the manuscript. You may signify a reference with a number or phrase, or perhaps both when you are drawing attention to a specific page in a work that you’re citing. For example:
An unlucky and under-reported effect of Hurricane Katrina was the large number of pets that their owners were forced to abandon (Eggers, 93).
In this case, the Works Cited page must contain a full reference to the text by Eggers. Following the MLA style to reference books, the reference on the Works Cited page should read exactly as follows:
Eggers, Dave. Zeitoun. New York: Random House, 2009. Print.
Other media citations are proscribed by the MLA as so:
Journal: Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97.01 (2003): 75. Print.
Video: Inglorious Basterds. Dir. Quentin Tarantino. Universal Pictures, 2009. Film.
Website: The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2008.
As a rule, citation styles are meticulous; every capitalization, punctuation and space matter. The AP Style Manual and the Chicago Manual are also used in many academic environments, though less frequently. Each of them has their own set of distinct citation rules. Generally, students in the humanities are asked to use MLA; science majors, APA; and history and social studies majors use the Chicago Manual. If you are unsure which to use, check with your professor for your university’s standard.
ConclusionWriting academic papers may seem overwhelming at first. However, approaching the workload rationally, understanding what’s being requested of you and practicing good time management can go a long way toward decreasing the associated stress. Taking advantage of the writing resources here can result in a relatively painless turnover of academic papers. You may also find these additional resources helpful:
- OWL: Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab has long been considered a go-to resource for all things writing. Descriptions and tips on specific essay requirements, writing tips for general and academic audiences, and grammar and punctuation advice are only a few of OWL’s offerings.
- Writer’s Workshop: The University of Illinois’ Writing Workshop can improve any student’s writing ability. Definitive explanations about grammar, usage, parts of speech and proper citation are included, as is a tips and tricks page.
- Quick and Dirty Tips: Maintained by a blogger styling herself as Grammar Girl, this entertaining website is chock full of short, informational descriptions of how to handle common grammar questions.
- The Elements of Style: Known generally to writers as Strunk & White (referring to the author’s names), this definitive style guide has been made available online by Bartleby.com. Free advice on composition, usage and principles of grammar is easily obtained via a search menu.
- Guide to Grammar and Writing: The comprehensive A to Z index answers hundreds of grammar questions; interactive quizzes also test your grammar knowledge.
Photo Credit: jeffrey james pacres via Compfightcc
The writing required in college courses may be different than anything you’ve encountered before. English classes taken in middle school, and sometimes in the early years of high school, provide the basics, but many students lose these skills before they begin college. In addition, for nontraditional students who haven’t studied English in a while, making the transition to academic writing can be difficult.
Professors in all majors expect students to enter their courses with high-level writing skills. A gap in skill level is often met with remedial English courses in the first semester of college. Use this guide to refresh your knowledge of basic grammar rules, and to understand what you need to know and apply in your college classes. This resource can also serve as a reference as you complete your first written assignments.
Types of Academic Writing
There are different writing styles, each with a different purpose or audience. There are situations in which one style will be more appropriate than another, and there is a variety of strategies you can use to approach the work. This section of our guide provides an overview of the writing types you will likely encounter as a college student.
Assignments that require you to support a position, claim or opinion involve a persuasive writing approach. These papers are framed with a thesis statement, which introduces a focused assertion. Examples include: “Fast food consumption is linked to heart disease in low-income communities,” and “The chemicals used in pesticides pose the most significant threat to our health in the 21st century.” The remainder of the paper provides a logical argument and relevant evidence that supports the claim presented in the thesis. Tips for writing argument papers include:
- Clearly describe the central issue, position or premise.
- Provide evidence that supports the position presented in your thesis statement.
- Develop a conclusion based on the evidence you provided.
Research papers can take multiple forms, depending on the purpose and specific requirements of your class assignment. This format can be used to describe the methods used in your own research project, present the results of a research project and to describe the research that has already been completed in an area of interest. Some assignments require a combination of these approaches. These papers typically include formal sections, such as an introduction, review of existing research literature, analysis, discussion of results and conclusion. Tips for writing research papers include:
- Develop a clear and focused research question, hypothesis, thesis or topic.
- Identify relevant sources, including previous research reports.
- Analyze the results found in your sources.
- Describe how results answer your research question, prove or disprove your hypothesis, support your thesis or expand knowledge of your topic.
Similar to argument and persuasive essays, expository papers require you to research an idea or concept and provide supporting evidence. This type of writing includes a thesis statement, as well as the logical presentation of sources that address the idea you are exploring in your paper. A five-paragraph format is typical for expository essays: (1) introduction paragraph, (2-4) three body paragraphs, (5) conclusion paragraph. This form of writing is often used to evaluate your knowledge of a topic and can be included in exams. Tips for writing expository papers include:
- Determine the approach required for the assignment: compare and contrast, cause and effect, procedure or process.
- Write a concise thesis statement that presents your topic, but does not include opinion.
- Research existing information about your topic.
- Provide objective evidence and relevant information found in your research.
- Provide a conclusion that connects supporting information with the thesis statement.
Professors often use written exams to measure your knowledge of a specific topic, understanding of a complex concept or comprehension of course reading and resources. These essays can include components of argument and persuasion, research and exposition, as directed by your instructor. The first step in preparation for essay exams is to complete all of your course reading assignments, participate in discussions and organize your notes and study time. This should take place throughout the course, not just in time for the exam date. Tips for exam essay writing include:
- Read the exam question carefully; look for keywords such as “compare” and “criticize” to direct your approach.
- Create a rough outline that sets up the scope and sequence of your essay, as well as critical concepts and sources you should include.
- Develop a response that presents a clear main point or argument and organized supporting points.
- Monitor your progress if the written exam is timed.
Academic proposals are typically written as part of grant applications or for professional conference presentations. They often outline a research plan or project idea with a goal of gaining support from another group. This type of writing is more common in graduate-level study, but may be encountered by undergraduates involved in collaborative research projects with professors and other students. Tips for writing academic proposals include:
- Pay careful attention to the instructions provided by the organization asking for proposal submissions; follow all formatting and process guidelines.
- Grab the reviewers’ attention with a clear title and focused introduction that explains your plan.
- Provide details about how your project meets the grant or conference requirements, as well as how it is related to relevant research and needs in your field.
- Ask for feedback and proofreading from someone who is familiar with your topic.
Common Writing Pitfalls
The proper use of grammar increases the clarity of your writing, and creates an easy flow of words and ideas for the reader to follow. Common problems occur when using the passive voice, incorrect punctuation and confusing word options. The examples in this section provide easy-to-remember tips to avoid these errors in your own writing.
Active vs. Passive Voice
Active voice is generally preferred in most forms of writing. It places emphasis on the subject of a sentence and the action taking place. Active voice usually requires fewer words than passive voice and communicates action more clearly to the reader.
- Passive: It was decided by the administration that new databases must be added to the library.
- Active: The administration decided that the library must add new databases.
Some of the most common forms of punctuation are listed below, along with tips for putting them to use.
Commas divide sentences into separate components, which improves readability, creates a pause and connects thoughts. They may be used with conjunctions (e.g., and, but, for, so), to separate items in a series, or to emphasize a phrase or clause.
- Most students enjoyed the guest speaker, but faculty members said the presentation was inappropriate.
- Before classes begin, you must complete the orientation tutorial, order your textbooks, post an introduction and read the syllabus.
- Dr. Williams, who won last year’s teaching award, offers that course in the spring semester every year.
A colon is primarily used to introduce something in a sentence, but it can also draw attention to a list, example, quotation, noun or phrase.
- The course syllabus includes: assignment instructions, due dates, instructor contact information and grading policies.
- The library was as expected: quiet and full of resources.
- The provost set the policy in her statement: “Academic integrity is expected in all courses, and plagiarism cases will be reported to my office immediately.”
Semicolons separate items in a list when one or more of the items includes a comma. They are also used to join two sentences or independent clauses.
- The professor said there was a lack of reading comprehension; attention to detail and creative, thoughtful responses.
- She enrolled in classes today; too many require expensive textbooks.
Hyphen guidelines are not as strict as those for other types of punctuation. Primary use includes connecting two words to create a compound adjective when they come before a noun in a sentence. They are also used with some prefixes.
- As a well-known expert of ancient history, Dr. Williams has the best-attended classes in the department.
- Student protests on college campuses increased in the mid-1970s.
Apostrophes and the letter ‘s’ are used to indicate possessive nouns. This is different than creating a plural noun with only the ‘s.’
- The professor’s textbooks are now available at the bookstore.
- Each student has an online appointment with the library’s reference expert.
Periods are used to end sentences, and in some abbreviations. Check your style guide (e.g., APA, MLA) for more specific instructions on abbreviations, since the rules vary.
- A complete thought can be expressed in a single sentence.
- She was going to interview with Consolidated Cogs, Inc., however, they did not offer the benefits, etc. she needed.
Words to Watch
Many college students struggle with some of the most common punctuation and grammar mistakes. Review the words listed below, along with tips for proper usage.
They’re, their, there
These words all sound the same, but have different meanings. They’re is the contraction of they and are; their is possessive (as in, it belongs to them) and there is a location (as in, here or there).
- They’re going to be glad they discussed the project with a reference librarian.
- Their project earned an A!
- I’ll meet you at the library, but won’t park there.
Two, too, to
These words all sound the same, but have different meanings. Two is a number (as in, one, two, three). Too is used to say “also” or as an alternative to “very.” To is a preposition (which often indicated movement) or as part of an infinitive (e.g., to write).
- I just ordered two more textbooks.
- She needs textbooks, too. They are getting too expensive!
- I will go to the bookstore to buy my textbooks.
Its is a possessive pronoun. It’s is the contraction of it and is. If you get confused in your writing, try replacing the word you want with “his” or “her.” If you can do this, use its (without an apostrophe).
- The library kept its doors closed during the holidays.
- It’s time to go home for the holidays!
Weather is a reference to the atmosphere and conditions like rain and snow. Whether introduces alternatives and is similar to the word “if.”
- The weather forecast calls for rain; bring your umbrella!
- She’s deciding whether she should take that class in the spring or summer.
The use of alot is usually considered an error. Use a lot (two separate words) to indicate a large number or many.
- The new library database includes a lot of new journals.
For additional assistance with grammar and punctuation, try the following writing tools and resources:
Citations provide a way for you to give attribution to the authors that inform your writing, and help you avoid plagiarism. Citations should give credit to those whose ideas or concepts you include in your work, direct quotations and paraphrasing. Style guides provide a structured way to format citations so that they are consistent and verifiable. There are many style guides to choose from, but the three presented in this section of our guide are widely used by colleges and universities. Check with your instructors to make sure you are using the preferred style guide in your classes.
The Modern Language Association (MLA) writing guidelines are used by a wide range of schools and professional publications. Students in English, foreign language, cultural studies, literature and arts programs typically use the MLA style for their written assignments. See the examples below:
King, Stephen. The Bazaar of Bad Dreams. New York: Scribner, 2015. Print.
Allen, Darryl E., and Jo Lacy Idlebird. “Depreciation’s Effect on Capital Budgeting Metrics Needs More Educator Focus.” American Journal of Business Research vol. 7 no. 1 (2014): 45-51. Questia. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham. “Research Methods for Educational Enquiry: Methodological Approaches for Small-scale Research.” 05 July 2012. Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed on 24 Nov. 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXIjnAgijS0
“French Revolution.” History.com. A+E Networks, 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2015.
(Author, page number)
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of investments (Allen and Idlebird 45).
According to Allen and Idlebird “the format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (45).
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (Allen and Idlebird 45).
MLA style recommends in-text citations (as illustrated above). However, longer, explanatory notes may be included as footnotes (placed at the bottom of the page on which they appear) or endnotes (listed on a separate page at the end of the document). These options provide readers with additional resources and background information not necessary needed in the main text of the paper.
- Studies by Jones (102) and Williams (40) provide similar conclusions related to needed research in the area of student business finance skills.
Footnotes can also be used instead of the parenthetical in-text citations described in the section above. Check with your instructor to confirm what is expected for your assignments.
- Stephen King, The Bazaar of Bad Dreams (New York: Scribner, 2015) 224.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), originally published in 1929, is currently in its 6th edition. It has been adopted for use primarily in the fields of psychology and education, as well as many social science disciplines. See the examples below:
King, S. (2015). The bazaar of bad dreams. New York, NY: Scribner.
Allen, D. E., & Idlebird, J. L. (2014). Depreciation’s effect on capital budgeting metrics needs more educator focus. American Journal of Business Research 7(1), 45-51. Retrieved from https://www.questia.com/
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham (2012, July 5). Research methods for educational enquiry: methodological approaches for small-scale research [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXIjnAgijS0
French revolution. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution
(Author, year of publication, page number)
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of investments (Allen and Idlebird, 2014).
According to Allen and Idlebird (2014), “the format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (p. 45).
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (Allen & Idlebird, 2014, p. 45).
APA style recommends in-text citations (as illustrated above). However, longer, explanatory notes may added as footnotes. These notes provide readers with additional resources and background information, which may not be included in the main text of your paper. APA style does not include the use of endnotes. Check with your instructor before adding footnotes to your written assignments.
- Studies by Jones (2001) and Williams (2010) provide similar conclusions related to needed research in the area of student business finance skills.
- This research presented in this document focused on undergraduate students enrolled as entrepreneurship majors; the preferences of additional student populations may be relevant to review when creating new curricula in this area.
The Chicago Manual of Style is published by the University of Chicago and is currently in its 16th edition. It is often required for students in the humanities, arts and social sciences. This guide is one of the most comprehensive writing manuals, providing detailed formatting instructions for a wide variety of writing situations. See the examples below:
King, Stephen. 2015. The Bazaar of Bad Dreams. New York: Scribner.
Allen, Darryl E., and Jo Lacy Idlebird. 2014. “Depreciation’s Effect on Capital Budgeting Metrics Needs More Educator Focus.” American Journal of Business Research 7: 45-51. Accessed November 24, 2015. https://www.questia.com/read/1P3-3725860091/depreciation-s-effect-on-
Saint Mary’s University, Twickenham. “Research Methods for Educational Enquiry: Methodological Approaches for Small-scale Research.” YouTube video, 1:06:12. July 5, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXIjnAgijS0.
History.com. 2009. “French Revolution.” Accessed November 24, 2015. http://www.history.com/topics/ french-revolution.
(Author, year of publication, page number)
Students have difficulty computing capital recovery of investments (Allen and Idlebird 2014).
According to Allen and Idlebird (2014), “the format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (45).
“The format of the statement of cash flows did not affect students’ accuracy” (Allen and Idlebird 2014, 45).
Notes and bibliography
Chicago style includes two primary options for citing referenced works:
- author-date format (presented in the examples above)
- the notes and bibliography format (illustrated below)
Check with your instructor to see which Chicago approach is appropriate for your class assignments.
Notes are often abbreviated versions of the citations provided in a bibliography. Note the formatting differences in the following examples:
- Stephen King,The Bazaar of Bad Dreams (New York: Scribner, 2015), 100-101.
- King, Bazaar of Bad Dreams, 100-101.
King, Stephen.The Bazaar of Bad Dreams. New York: Scribner, 2015.
Additional Writing Types
While you may not encounter these as class assignments, the following are important forms of writing that you will need for college admissions and course communication, as well as in your career after graduation.
Personal Statement or Letter of Intent
College applications at the undergraduate and graduate level typically require some sort of written statement that includes your interests, goals and reasons for applying. These essays may also be part of scholarship applications, and are similar to cover letters used in the job search process. Tips for writing personal statements include:
- Focus on the purpose of the letter or application and provide only the most relevant information.
- Take a direct and open approach to sharing your interests and how the application will help you reach specific goals.
- Be concise and follow all instructions related to length and format.
Email is a primary source of communication in many education and employment settings. As you engage in email conversations with college officials and professors, keep in mind that this is a professional exchange. There are expectations for the composition of messages and the etiquette used. Tips for email use include:
- Provide a clear but concise subject line that conveys why you are sending the message.
- Do not type using ALL CAPITAL LETTERS because this can come across as a form of screaming.
- Include salutations, such as “Dear Professor Williams” or “Hello, Mr. Jackson.”
- Keep your message focused on the subject; write in short paragraphs that are easy to read.
Blogs and Journals
Some courses require students to maintain personal blogs as a way to submit assignments, encourage reflective learning or to develop portfolios. Whether this is part of your program or something you pursue on your own, it is important to understand the impact of effective writing in these formats. Tips for student blogging include:
- Watch your language; consider this a type of professional communication and be aware of the potential reach of your words if your blog is publicly accessible.
- Explore writing in the first person as you share your ideas and opinions about assigned topics, as well as other relevant areas of interest to you.
- Review each post for spelling and grammar errors to publish the best writing possible.
- Read other students’ blogs to learn more about the format and compare different writing styles.