One of the many festivals that keep the state of Haryana in a festive spirit almost all the time is the Haryana Festival in Haryana. This festival is celebrated to commemorate the day when the state of Haryana was carved out of Punjab in 1966. This year in 2017, the 50th Haryana Day will be celebrated all over the state on 1st November.
Description of Haryana Day in Haryana
During the Haryana Festival, there are cycle rallies as well as a rally cum race that is held from Chandigarh to Panchkula town. All people and cycle riders participate enthusiastically and there is cheer and rejoicing on the streets all over the state.
The day of the Haryana Day festival also marks the Pakwan Pratiyogita, the food festival that is held at that time, at the tourist complexes. There are also blood donation camps and other Run for Fun events at the Haryana Festival. To add more enjoyment to the Haryana Day festival in Haryana, there are musical performances in the evenings that are held almost in all complexes in Haryana.
All the state complexes and buildings are brightly lit up and decorated and present a cheerful and beautiful sight. There are also various kinds of contests held to add some flavor to the Haryana Day. People participate actively and enthusiastically in the contests, races and other methods of celebrations.
Haryana (IPA: [ɦərɪˈjaːɳaː]), carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India. Situated in North India with less than 1.4% (44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)) of India's land area, it is ranked 21st in terms of area.Chandigarh is the capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and the Gurugram is the financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,841 villages and 6212 villages panchayats.
As the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India, and among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the sixth highestper capita income among Indian states and union territories at ₹180,174 (US$2,800) against the national average of ₹112,432 (US$1,700) for year 2016–17. Haryana's 2017-18 estimated state GSDP of US$95 billion (52% services, 30% industries and 18% agriculture) is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 14th position behind only much bigger states, is also boosted by 30 SEZs (mainly along DMIC, ADKIC and DWPE in NCR), 7% national agricultural exports, 60% of national Basmati rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India.Faridabad has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India by City Mayors Foundation survey. In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, and number 2 in startup ecosystem, innovation and livability (Nov 2016).
Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, monuments, heritage, flora and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, and Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides (north, west and south), consequently a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.
The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230). The name Haryana has been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God". However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).
Main articles: History, National monuments, and State monuments
Main articles: Indus Valley Civilization and Vedic Civilization
The Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago.
Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are home to the largest and one of the world's oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, dated at over 9,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley.
Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani (Ranila, Charkhi Dadri, Badhara village), Dadri, Gurgaon (Ferozpur Jhirka), Hansi, Hisar (Agroha), Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa, Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak (Asthal-Abohar) and Sonepat in Haryana.
After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Sunam, Kaithal and Panipat. When he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were mostly non-Muslims, fled and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred. The Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi. They tried to resist but were defeated and fled. Timur's army pursued and killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners. He then sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered. From there he proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were "fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, and had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had already fled. He then marched on to Loni fort.
The area that is now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat (1526), Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat (1556), Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and the Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become the last Hindu Emperor of India with a formal coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556. In the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.
Haryana as a state came into existence on 1 November 1966 the Punjab Reorganisation Act (1966). The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing state of Punjab and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district — along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri — were to be included.
The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana. The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.
Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became the first Chief Minister of Haryana.
Demographics and religion
See also: List of people from Haryana
According to the 2011 census, of total 25,350,000 population of Haryana, Hindus (87.46%) constitute the majority of the state's population with Sikhs (4.91%), Muslims (7.03%) (mainly Meos) being the largest minorities.
Among Hindus, Jats (25% to 28%) are the single largest and socio-economically dominant caste, followed by the OBC (24%, including Ahir, Sain, Yadava, etc., excluding Jats), SC (21% , dalits, Balmiki, Chamar, Dhanak, Khatik, etc.) and other non-dalit non-SC castes (11% to 14%, such as Brahmins, Baniya, Ror )and(16% to 17%, Khatris ).
Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Nuh districts. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after Punjab, and they mostly live in the districts adjoining Punjab, such as Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula karnal.
Hindi was the sole official language of Haryana till 2010 and it is spoken by the majority of the population (87.31%). Haryana has 70% rural population who primarily speak Haryanvi dialect of Hindi, as well as other related dialects, such as Bagri and Mewati.
Tamil was once given nominal official status in Haryana but it was later replaced with Punjabi, in 2010.
Haryana has its own unique traditional folk music, folk dances, saang (folk theater),cinema, belief system such as Jathera (ancestral worship), and arts such as Phulkari and Shisha embroidery.
Folk theater and dances
Folk music and dances of Haryana are based on satisfying cultural needs of primarily agrarian and martial natures of Haryanavi tribes.
Haryanvi musical folk theater main types are Saang, Rasa lila and Ragini. The Saang and Ragini form of theater was popularised by Lakhmi Chand.
Haryanvi folk dances and music have fast energetic movements. Three popular categories of dance are: festive-seasonal, devotional, and ceremonial-recreational. The festive-seasonal dances and songs are Gogaji/Gugga, Holi, Phaag, Sawan, Teej. The devotional dances and songs are Chaupaiya, Holi, Manjira, Ras Leela, Raginis). The ceremonial-recreational dances and songs are of following types: legendary bravery (Kissa and Ragini of male warriors and female Satis), love and romance (Been and its variant Nāginī dance, and Ragini), ceremonial (Dhamal Dance, Ghoomar, Jhoomar (male), Khoria, Loor, and Ragini).
Folk music and songs
Haryanvi folk music are based on day to day themes and injecting earthy humor enlivens the feel of the songs. Haryanvi music takes two main forms: "Classical folk music" and "Desi Folk music" (Country Music of Haryana), and sung in the form of ballads and love, valor and bravery, harvest, happiness and pangs of parting of lovers.
Classical Haryanvi folk music
Classical Haryanvi folk music is based on Indian classical music.Hindustani classical ragas, learnt in gharanaparampara of guru–shishya tradition, are used to sing songs of heroic bravery (such as Alha-Khand (1663-1202 CE) about bravery of Alha and Udal, Jaimal Fatta of Maharana Udai Singh II), Brahmas worship and festive seasonal songs (such as Teej, Holi and Phaag songs of Phalgun month near Holi).Kissa legendary folklores of bravery and love such as Nihalde Sultan, Sati Manorama, Jai Singh ki Mrityu, Saran de, etc. are some of the most popular folklores. Bravery songs are sung in high pitch.
Desi Haryanvi folk music
Desi Haryanvi folk music (Haryanvi country folk music) The country-side or desi (native) form of Haryanvi music is based on Raag Bhairvi, Raag Bhairav, Raag Kafi, Raag Jaijaivanti, Raag Jhinjhoti and Raag Pahadi and used for celebrating community bonhomie to sing seasonal songs, ballads, ceremonial songs (wedding, etc.) and related religious legendary tales such as Puran Bhagat. Relationship and songs celebrating love and life are sung in medium pitch. Ceremonial and religious songs are sung in low pitch. Young girls and women usually sing entertaining and fast seasonal, love, relationship and friendship related songs such as Phagan (song for eponymous season/month), Katak (songs for the eponymous season/month), Samman (songs for the eponymous season/month), bande-bandi (male-female duet songs), sathne (songs of sharing heartfelt feelings among female friends). Older women usually sing devotional Mangal Geet (auspicious songs) and ceremonial songs such as Bhajan, Bhat (wedding gift to the mother of bride or groom by her brother), Sagai, Ban (Hindu wedding ritual where pre-wedding festivities starts), Kuan-Poojan (a custom that is performed to welcome the birth of male child by worshiping the well or source of drinking water), Sanjhi and Holi festival.
Socially normative-cohesive impact
Music and dance for Haryanvi people is a great way of demolishing societal differences as folk singers are highly esteemed and they are sought after and invited for the events, ceremonies and special occasions regardless of their caste or status. These inter-caste songs are fluid in nature, and never personalized for any specific caste, and they are sung collectively by women from different strata, castes, dialects. These songs do transform fluidly in dialect, style, words, etc. This adoptive style can be seen from the adoption of tunes of Bollywood movie songs into Haryanvi songs. Despite this continuous fluid transforming nature, Haryanvi songs have a distinct style of their own as explained above.
See also: North Indian cuisine
81% people of Haryana are vegetarian, and cuisine of Haryana is based on fresh, earthy and wholesome ethos of its agrarian culture, where staples are roti, saag, vegetarian sabzi and abundance of milk products such as homemade nooni or tindi ghee, ghee (clarified butter), milk, lassi, kheer.
Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country. The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level. Haryana has only 4% (compared to national 21.85%) area under forests.
Plains and mountains
Haryana has four main geographical features.
The Yamuna, tributary of Ganges, flows along the state's eastern boundary.
Northern Haryana has several north-east to south-west flowing rivers originating from the Sivalik Hills of Himalayas, such as Ghaggar-Hakra (palaeochannel of vedic Sarasvati river),Chautang (paleochannel of vedic Drishadvati river, tributary of Ghagghar),Tangri river (tributary of Ghagghar),Kaushalya river (tributary of Ghagghar),Markanda River (tributary of Ghagghar),Sarsuti,Dangri,Somb river. Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage, rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district, passes through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. The seasonal Markanda River, known as the Aruna in ancient times, originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala, and swells into a raging torrent during monsoon is notorious for its devastating power, carries its surplus water on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Sarasuti and later the Ghaggar.
Southern Haryana has several south-east to north-west flowing seasonal rivulets originating from the Aravalli Range in and around the hills in Mewat region, including Sahibi River (called Najafgarh drain in Delhi),Dohan river (tributary of Sahibi, originates at Mandoli village near Neem Ka Thana in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and then disappears in Mahendragarh district),Krishnavati river (former tributary of Sahibi river, originates near Dariba and disappears in Mahendragarh district much before reaching Sahibi river) and Indori river (longest tributary of Sahibi River, originates in Sikar district of Rajasthan and flows to Rewari district of Haryana), these once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswati river.
Major canals are Western Yamuna Canal,Sutlej Yamuna link canal (from Sutlej river tributary of Indus),  and Indira Gandhi Canal.
Major dams are Kaushalya Dam in Panchkula district,Hathnikund Barrage and Tajewala Barrage on Yamuna in Yamunanagar district,Pathrala barrage on Somb river in Yamunanagar district, ancient Anagpur Dam near Surajkund in Faridabad district, and Ottu barrage on Ghaggar-Hakra River in Sirsa district.
Major lakes are Dighal Wetland, Basai Wetland, Badkhal Lake in Faridabad, holy Brahma Sarovar and Sannihit Sarovar in Kurukshetra,Blue Bird Lake in Hisar,Damdama Lake at Sohna in Gurgram district,Hathni Kund in Yamunanagar district,Karna Lake at Karnal, ancient Surajkund in Faridabad, and Tilyar Lake in Rohtak.
The Haryana State Waterbody Management Board is responsible for rejuvenation of 14,000 Johads of Haryana and up to 60 lakes in National Capital Region falling within the Haryana state.
Only hot spring of Haryana is the Sohna Sulphur Hot Spring at Sohna in Gurugram district.Tosham Hill range has several sacred sulphur pond of religious significance that are revered for the healing impact of sulfur, such as Pandu Teerth Kund, Surya Kund, Kukkar Kund, Gyarasia Kund or Vyas Kund.
Seasonal waterfalls include Tikkar Taal twin lakes at Morni hiills, Dhosi Hill in Mahendragarh district and Pali village on outskirts of Faridabad.
Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January. The climate is arid to semi-arid with average rainfall of 354.5 mm. Around 29% of rainfall is received during the months from July to September, and the remaining rainfall is received during the period from December to February.
Flora and fauna
Forest Cover in the state in 2013 was 3.59% (1586 km2) and the Tree Cover in the state was 2.90% (1282 km2), giving a total forest and tree Cover of 6.49%. In 2016-17, 18,412 hectares were brought under tree cover by planting 14.1 million seedlings. Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found here.
See also: List of National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries of Haryana, India
Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.
Environmental and ecological issues
See also: Air pollution in India
Haryana Environment Protection Council is the advisory committee and |Department of Environment, Haryana]] is the department responsible for administration of environment. Areas of Haryana surrounding Delhi NCR are most polluted. During smog of November 2017, Air quality index of Gurugram and Faridabad showed that the density of Fine particulates (2.5 PM diameter) was an average of 400 PM and monthly average of Haryana was 60 PM. Other sources of pollution are exhaust gases from old vehicles, stone crushers and brick kiln. Haryana has 75 lakh (7,500,000) old vehicles, of which 40% are old more polluting vehicles, besides 500,000 new vehicles are added every year. Other majorly polluted cities are Bhiwani
Languages of Haryana (2001)