Leadership and Management Essay
rodrigo | November 26, 2012
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In this assignment I am going to define leadership and management, and then I will discuss some of the leadership theories i.e Contingency Theory, Path-goal Theory, Great man theory, Management theories, Transformational theory /leader. After that I did an organisational setting in which I discussing the leadership style of Steve jobs in Apple. Then I am going to discuss my strengths and weaknesses on the basis of my peer feedback. At last I write conclusion and recommendation.
Leadership have different definitions given by different authors and practitioners, but generally it is relationship in which the behaviour or actions of people are influenced by one person.
‘’Leadership is the process of influencing a group within an organisation towards achieving an aim or goal’’ (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 20011:471).
According to Yukl leadership is:-
- ‘’The process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it
- And the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.’’ (Yukl, 2010:26)
Individuals and organisations performance is influenced by the leadership because it is a two-way process. To enable their followers to function effectively leader motivate their followers and design organisational contexts. If the group is influenced or motivated by the leader and give their full effort to reach the desired goal then the performance of the company automatically improved.
As Mullins said Management is ‘’Getting work done through the efforts of other people.’’ (Mullins, 2010:434)
Manager is the person who performs the function of management by using the available resources efficiently and effectively to accomplish desired goals and objectives.
Difference between Leadership and Management
Leadership vs. Management
- Managers do things right; leaders do the right things.
- Relationship of Managing is an authority; leading relationship is influensive.
- Stability is created by management; change comes because of leading.
Contingency Theory of leadership is related to the business environment that determines which leadership style is best for the different situation. According to this theory there is no single style of leadership is appropriate for all situations.
Path-goal Theoryis the third contingency model of leadership focuses on the leader to motivate subordinate. It suggests that the leader should remove hurdles, clarify the paths and increasing the reward for the followers to reach the goals by using any of the four leadership behaviour i.e. Directive leadership, Supportive leadership, Participative leadership and Achievement-oriented leadership.
(House and Dessler, 2010:387-388)
Great man theory suggests that leadership capability is inherent and the great leaders are born not made. According to this theory you are either a natural born leader or you are not.
Management theories are also known as transactional theories. This leadership theory is based on system of reward and punishment.
Assumptions of Management theories
- If the people get command from one superior or the chain of command is definite, then they perform their best.
- Management use reward and punishment to motivate workers.
- Followers must obey the instructions and commands of the leader.
Transformational theory /leader efficiently and effectively motivate its team by using chain of command to get the job done. Transformational leader imagines the big picture of the organisation and come with a new idea that moves an organisation to reach that level.
Broad framework of leadership style is the managerial leadership towards subordinate staff and the focus of power within the three headings-
- Autocratic style- In this style management has the focus of power to take any decision.
- Democratic style- In this style the focus of power is more in a group. The leadership should share its function with group.
- Laissez-faire (genuine) style- In this style the group members have freedom to do whatever they want because manager knows that members of group are doing right thing.
(Mullins, L.J. 2010:381)
I read a case study of an Apple founded by Steve Jobs in1976. After reading the case study I found that Steve jobs is a transformational leader because he always comes with a new idea and effectively motivates his subordinates to reach his plan or goal. He believes in change that’s why he always found an opportunity in consumers taste and want.
- Apple is founded in 1976 and comes with Apple I a personal computer kit.
- He introduces Apple II in 1977 with colour graphics and floppy disk.
- Then apple launched Macintosh in 1984 it is the key step in the development of today’s pc.
- In 1996 apple bought NeXT.
- In 2001 he launched iPod music player for music lovers. By this he set of a new strategic option in music and entertainment.
- Then he came with the iPhone in 2007 and the MacBook
Because of all these innovation I found that Steve jobs continuously transforming there products and making a new plan for the customers.
Communication is the process of exchange and flow of information from one person to another. Effective communication is a two way communication, in which the receiver gets the exact information that the sender transmitted. Communication is the very essential factor of leader because without good communication skill leader can’t convey his suggestions and decisions to the followers or he can’t lead them. Communication is of two types verbal and nonverbal. According to Mehrabian ‘’in face to face communication other people understands us only 7% by words we use, 38% from our voice and remaining 55% from body language and facial expressions.’’
(Mullins, L.J. 2010:230)
In my group work my group mate and I discussed about the communication skills and the importance of communication in leadership. After that discussion we gave feedback to each other, in which I got average comment. According to my group members I have an ability to express the thing but I can’t elaborate clearly because I speak in a slow voice and the listener can’t get me clearly.
Motivation is the process of stimulating someone to use his willingness for fulfilling the desired goal.
A leader motivates their followers by praising them or by giving them reward like bonus, incentive, promotion etc. In Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory he defines five needs of the people. He arranged these needs in a hierarchy order i.e. physiological needs, safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, self- actualisation needs.
(Mullins, L.J. 2010:261)
A good leader is a good motivator he always inspires the individual by different theories of motivation.
During group discussion my group members gave me the positive feedback because they knew that in our finance assignment I helped one of my group member who find some problem in relating the ratios of the company with the economic factors, as I have a commerce background I helped him by giving theory and the proper link.
Leadership grows from self-confidence, it is the fundamental basis of leadership. Leadership is about having confidence to make decisions. The group members or the followers can step forward towards the desired goal only when the leader is confident. So the leaders confidence is directly proportionate to the followers. It acts like a bridge between person and its goal.
My group mate thinks that I am mediocre in self-confidence because when I am giving my strategy presentation I am not using my body language confidently and I am hesitating to give presentation. I’ll take that comment as a gift and try to increase my level of confidence.
Delegation is the capabilities or knowledge of the person and issuing them a task, it also includes three concepts i.e. authority, responsibility and accountability. Delegation enables a leader to develop the performance of the followers to reach the desired target by making the best use of time.
In my group activity I gave suggestions to my group and they observe it. When I get the chance I gave my suggestions to delicate the work. They found my suggestion an average because some time I didn’t find the strength of few team members in different tasks. So in some cases I am not able to assign a task to the right person.
A leader is a person who influences other people to accomplish the desired goal, leader accept challenges takes risk to remove hurdles for his subordinates, he had a different styles for different situations. A leader is a role model for the organisation.
With the help of the feedback given by my group members I know what are my strengths and weaknesses, because of them I know what are the obstacles for me to be a good leader.
(Yukl, G. (2010:26), Leadership in Organizations: Global Edition, 7th Edition, Pearson Higher Education)
Mullins, L.J. (2010), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Pearson Higher Education
Mullins, L.J. (2010), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Pearson Higher Education
http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/p/leadtheories.htm, (22 may 2011 )
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